IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Testing for competition in the Spanish banking industry: The Panzar-Rosse approach revisited


  • Luis Gutiérrez de Rozas

    () (Comisión Nacional de Energía (CNE))


The aim of this paper is to assess the level of competition prevailing in the Spanish banking system. The current analysis employs a widely used non-structural methodology put forward by Panzar and Rosse (1987) —the so-called H-statistic— and draws upon a comprehensive panel dataset of Spanish commercial and savings banks covering the period 1986-2005. Standard estimates characterize a hump-shaped profile for the H-statistic throughout the time span under consideration. Nevertheless, a weighted procedure is subsequently performed in order to control for firm size and the number of branches. The estimation outcome reveals a gradual rising path for the H-statistic, thus suggesting a more competitive environment among larger banks. In both settings, a noteworthy increase in the degree of competition is identified at the turn of the eighties, when several liberalization-oriented policy measures came into force. The aforementioned findings discredit the widespread hypothesis which states that concentration impairs competition.

Suggested Citation

  • Luis Gutiérrez de Rozas, 2007. "Testing for competition in the Spanish banking industry: The Panzar-Rosse approach revisited," Working Papers 0726, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:0726

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: First version, August 2007
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Francisco Pérez García & Joaquín Maudos Villarroya, 2001. "Competencia Versus Poder De Monopolio En La Banca Española," Working Papers. Serie EC 2001-09, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    2. Panzar, John C & Rosse, James N, 1987. "Testing for "Monopoly" Equilibrium," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 443-456, June.
    3. Stijn Claessens & Luc Laeven, 2004. "What drives bank competition? Some international evidence," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 563-592.
    4. Hempell, Hannah S., 2002. "Testing for Competition Among German Banks," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,04, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    5. Hughes, Joseph P. & Mester, Loretta J. & Moon, Choon-Geol, 2001. "Are scale economies in banking elusive or illusive?: Evidence obtained by incorporating capital structure and risk-taking into models of bank production," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2169-2208, December.
    6. Iwata, Gyoichi, 1974. "Measurement of Conjectural Variations in Oligopoly," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(5), pages 947-966, September.
    7. Lau, Lawrence J., 1982. "On identifying the degree of competitiveness from industry price and output data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 93-99.
    8. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    9. Peltzman, Sam, 1977. "The Gains and Losses from Industrial Concentration," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(2), pages 229-263, October.
    10. Alfredo Martín-Oliver & Vicente Salas-Fumás & Jesus Saurina, 2007. "A Test of the Law of One Price in Retail Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(8), pages 2021-2040, December.
    11. Demsetz, Harold, 1973. "Industry Structure, Market Rivalry, and Public Policy," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 1-9, April.
    12. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Bank concentration and crises," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3041, The World Bank.
    13. Berger, Allen N, et al, 2004. "Bank Concentration and Competition: An Evolution in the Making," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 433-451, June.
    14. Alli Nathan & Edwin H. Neave, 1989. "Competition and Contestability in Canada's Financial System: Empirical Results," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 22(3), pages 576-594, August.
    15. Bikker, Jacob A. & Haaf, Katharina, 2002. "Competition, concentration and their relationship: An empirical analysis of the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 2191-2214, November.
    16. Barbara Casu & Claudia Girardone, 2006. "Bank Competition, Concentration And Efficiency In The Single European Market," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 74(4), pages 441-468, July.
    17. Gilbert, R Alton, 1984. "Bank Market Structure and Competition: A Survey," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(4), pages 617-644, November.
    18. Colwell, R J & Davis, E P, 1992. " Output and Productivity in Banking," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(0), pages 111-129, Supplemen.
    19. Juan Fernández De Guevara & Joaquín Maudos, 2007. "Explanatory Factors Of Market Power In The Banking System," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 75(3), pages 275-296, June.
    20. Shaffer, Sherrill & DiSalvo, James, 1994. "Conduct in a banking duopoly," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1063-1082, December.
    21. De Bandt, Olivier & Davis, E. Philip, 2000. "Competition, contestability and market structure in European banking sectors on the eve of EMU," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 1045-1066, June.
    22. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1982. "The oligopoly solution concept is identified," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 87-92.
    23. Juan Fernández de Guevara & Joaquín Maudos & Francisco Pérez, 2005. "Market Power in European Banking Sectors," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 27(2), pages 109-137, April.
    24. Christos K. Staikouras & Anastasia Koutsomanoli-Fillipaki, 2006. "Competition and Concentration in the New European Banking Landscape," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(3), pages 443-482.
    25. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 1997. "Microeconomics of Banking," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061937, July.
    26. Salas, Vicente & Saurina, Jesus, 2003. "Deregulation, market power and risk behaviour in Spanish banks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(6), pages 1061-1075, December.
    27. S. Baranzoni & P. Bianchi & L. Lambertini, 2000. "Multiproduct Firms, Product Differentiation, and Market Structure," Working Papers 368, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    28. Xavier Vives, 2001. "Competition in the Changing World of Banking," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(4), pages 535-547.
    29. Nicola Cetorelli, 2001. "Competition among banks: good or bad?," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 38-48.
    30. J.A. Bikker & J.M. Groeneveld, 1998. "Competition and Concentration in the EU Banking Industry," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 8, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Sys, Christa, 2009. "Is the container liner shipping industry an oligopoly?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 259-270, September.
    2. Stavarek, Daniel & Repkova, Iveta, 2011. "Estimation of the competitive conditions in the Czech banking sector," MPRA Paper 30720, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Amidu, Mohammed & Wolfe, Simon, 2013. "The effect of banking market structure on the lending channel: Evidence from emerging markets," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 146-157.
    4. repec:eee:riibaf:v:41:y:2017:i:c:p:412-422 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Moch, Nils, 2013. "Competition in fragmented markets: New evidence from the German banking industry in the light of the subprime crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2908-2919.
    6. Farruggio, Christian & Uhde, André, 2015. "Determinants of loan securitization in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 12-27.

    More about this item


    banking; competition; Panzar-Rosse; market structure;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:0726. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (María Beiro. Electronic Dissemination of Information Unit. Research Department. Banco de España). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.