IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Impact of bank competition on the interest rate pass-through in the euro area

  • M. van Leuvensteijn
  • C. Kok Sørensen
  • J.A. Bikker
  • A.A.R.J.M. van Rixtel

This paper analyses the impact of loan market competition on the interest rates applied by euro area banks to loans and deposits during the 1994-2004 period, using a novel measure of competition called the Boone indicator. We find evidence that stronger competition implies significantly lower spreads between bank and market interest rates for most loan market products, in line with expectations. Using an error correction model (ECM) approach to measure the effect of competition on the pass-through of market rates to bank interest rates, we likewise find that banks tend to price their loans more in accordance with the market in countries where competitive pressures are stronger. Further, where loan market competition is stronger, we observe larger bank spreads (implying lower bank interest rates) on current account and time deposits. This would suggest that the competitive pressure is heavier in the loan market than in the deposit markets, so that banks under competition compensate for their reduction in loan market income by lowering their deposit rates. We observe also that bank interest rates in more competitive markets respond more strongly to changes in market interest rates. These findings have important monetary policy implications, as they suggest that measures to enhance competition in the European banking sector will tend to render the monetary policy transmission mechanism more effective.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Utrecht School of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 08-08.

in new window

Date of creation: Mar 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:0808
Contact details of provider: Postal: P.O. Box 80125, NL-3508 TC Utrecht
Phone: +31 30 253 9800
Fax: +31 30 253 7373
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Email:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Hirofumi Uchida & Yoshiro Tsutsui, 2002. "Has Competition in the Japanese Banking Sector Improved?," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 02-09-Rev, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP), revised Sep 2003.
  2. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "The structure-performance relationship for European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 745-771, May.
  3. Reint Gropp & Christoffer Kok & Jung-Duk Lichtenberger, 2014. "The Dynamics of Bank Spreads and Financial Structure," Quarterly Journal of Finance (QJF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 4(04), pages 1450014-1-1.
  4. Banerjee, Anindya, 1999. " Panel Data Unit Roots and Cointegration: An Overview," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 607-29, Special I.
  5. Allen N. Berger & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Inside the black box: what explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-10, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Weth, Mark A., 2002. "The pass-through from market interest rates to bank lending rates in Germany," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,11, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  7. J.A. Bikker, 2003. "Testing for imperfect competition on EU deposit and loan markets with Bresnahan's market power model," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 52, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
  8. Carlo Cottarelli & Giovanni Ferri & Andrea Generale, 1995. "Bank Lending Rates and Financial Structure in Italy: A Case Study," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(3), pages 670-700, September.
  9. Bredin, Don & O’Reilly, Gerard, 2001. "An Analysis of the Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Ireland," Research Technical Papers 1/RT/01, Central Bank of Ireland.
  10. Sander, Harald & Kleimeier, Stefanie, 2004. "Convergence in euro-zone retail banking? What interest rate pass-through tells us about monetary policy transmission, competition and integration," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 461-492, April.
  11. Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  12. Angeliki Kourelis & Carlo Cottarelli, 1994. "Financial Structure, Bank Lending Rates, and the Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy," IMF Working Papers 94/39, International Monetary Fund.
  13. Boone, Jan & van Leuvensteijn, Michiel, 2010. "Measuring competition using the Profit Elasticity: American Sugar Industry, 1890-1914," CEPR Discussion Papers 8159, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Corvoisier, Sandrine & Gropp, Reint, 2002. "Bank concentration and retail interest rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 2155-2189, November.
  15. Lau, Lawrence J., 1982. "On identifying the degree of competitiveness from industry price and output data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 93-99.
  16. Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(03), pages 597-625, June.
  17. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
  18. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Jacob Bikker & Adrian van Rixtel & Christoffer Kok S�rensen, 2011. "A new approach to measuring competition in the loan markets of the euro area," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(23), pages 3155-3167.
  19. Xavier Vives, 2010. "Competition and Stability in Banking," CESifo Working Paper Series 3050, CESifo Group Munich.
  20. Gual, Jordi, 1999. "Deregulation, integration and market structure in European banking," IESE Research Papers D/397, IESE Business School.
  21. Bredin, Don & Fitzpatrick, Trevor & O'Reilly, Gerard, 2001. "Retail Interest Rate Pass-Through: The Irish Experience," Research Technical Papers 6/RT/01, Central Bank of Ireland.
  22. repec:tpr:qjecon:v:107:y:1992:i:2:p:657-80 is not listed on IDEAS
  23. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2003. "Bank Concentration and Crises," NBER Working Papers 9921, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  24. F. De Graeve & O. De Jonghe & R. Vander Vennet, 2004. "Competition, transmission and bank pricing policies: Evidence from Belgian loan and deposit markets," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/261, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  25. J.A. Bikker & K. Haaf, 2000. "Competition, concentration and their relationship: an empirical analysis of the banking industry," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 30, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
  26. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
  27. Scholnick, Barry, 1996. "Asymmetric adjustment of commercial bank interest rates: evidence from Malaysia and Singapore," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 485-496, June.
  28. Jacob Bikker & Laura Spierdijk & Paul Finnie, 2006. "Misspecifiation of the Panzar-Rosse Model: Assessing Competition in the Banking Industry," DNB Working Papers 114, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  29. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1990. "Some evidence on the empirical significance of credit rationing," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 105, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  30. David Neumark & Steven A. Sharpe, 1989. "Market structure and the nature of price rigidity: evidence from the market for consumer deposits," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  31. Andrey Pavlov & Susan M. Wachter, 2006. "The Inevitability of Marketwide Underpricing of Mortgage Default Risk," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 34(4), pages 479-496, December.
  32. Jacob A. Bikker & Jaap W.B. Bos, 2005. "Trends in Competition and Profitability in the Banking Industry: A Basic Framework," SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 2005/2 edited by Morten Balling, February.
  33. Peter Pedroni, 1999. "Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-02, Department of Economics, Williams College.
  34. Mester, Loretta J. & Saunders, Anthony, 1995. "When does the prime rate change?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 743-764, August.
  35. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1982. "The oligopoly solution concept is identified," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 87-92.
  36. de Bondt, Gabe, 2002. "Retail bank interest rate pass-through: new evidence at the euro area level," Working Paper Series 0136, European Central Bank.
  37. J. A. Bikker & M. van Leuvensteijn, 2008. "Competition and efficiency in the Dutch life insurance industry," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(16), pages 2063-2084.
  38. Raquel Lago-González & Vicente Salas-Fumás, 2005. "Market power and bank interest rate adjustments," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0539, Banco de Espa�a.
  39. Peter Winker, 1999. "Sluggish adjustment of interest rates and credit rationing: an application of unit root testing and error correction modelling," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(3), pages 267-277.
  40. Boone, J., 2004. "A New Way to Measure Competition," Discussion Paper 2004-31, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  41. Boone, Jan, 2001. "Intensity of competition and the incentive to innovate," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 705-726, April.
  42. Claudio E. V. Borio & Wilhelm Fritz, 1995. "The response of short-term bank lending rates to policy rates: a cross-country perspective," BIS Working Papers 27, Bank for International Settlements.
  43. Heffernan, Shelagh A, 1997. "Modelling British Interest Rate Adjustment: An Error Correction Approach," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 211-31, May.
  44. Gual, Jordi, 1999. "Deregulation, Integration, and Market Structure in European Banking," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 372-396, December.
  45. Mojon, Benoît, 2000. "Financial structure and the interest rate channel of ECB monetary policy," Working Paper Series 0040, European Central Bank.
  46. Heinemann, Friedrich & Schüler, Martin, 2002. "Integration benefits on EU retail credit markets: evidence from interest rate pass-through," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-26, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  47. Carlo Cottarelli & Angeliki Kourelis, 1994. "Financial Structure, Bank Lending Rates, and the Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 41(4), pages 587-623, December.
  48. Hannan, Timothy H & Berger, Allen N, 1991. "The Rigidity of Prices: Evidence from the Banking Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 938-45, September.
  49. Maudos, Joaquin & Fernandez de Guevara, Juan, 2003. "Factors Explaining the Interest Margin in the Banking Sectors of the European Union," MPRA Paper 15252, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  50. Gual, Jordi, 1999. "Deregulation, Integration and Market Structure in European Banking," CEPR Discussion Papers 2288, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  51. Kok, Christoffer & Werner, Thomas, 2006. "Bank interest rate pass-through in the euro area: a cross country comparison," Working Paper Series 0580, European Central Bank.
  52. Berger, Allen N, et al, 2004. "Bank Concentration and Competition: An Evolution in the Making," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 433-51, June.
  53. David Genesove & Wallace P. Mullin, 1998. "Testing Static Oligopoly Models: Conduct and Cost in the Sugar Industry, 1890-1914," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(2), pages 355-377, Summer.
  54. Boris Hofmann & Paul Mizen, 2004. "Interest Rate Pass-Through and Monetary Transmission: Evidence from Individual Financial Institutions' Retail Rates," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 71, pages 99-123, 02.
  55. Gabe J. de Bondt, 2005. "Interest Rate Pass-Through: Empirical Results for the Euro Area," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 6(1), pages 37-78, 02.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:0808. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marina Muilwijk)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.