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Schooling Costs and Child Work in Rural Pakistan

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  • Gautam Hazarika
  • Arjun Bedi

Abstract

A conventional argument in the child-labour debate is that improvements in access to schools are an effective way to reduce the labour force participation of children. It is argued that schooling competes with economic activity in the use of children's time, and enhanced access to schools, interpretable as reduction in schooling costs, may raise school attendance at the expense of child labour. In this article, we draw a distinction between child labour within the household (intra-household) and child work in the labour market (extra-household), and examine the separate effects of schooling costs upon these two types of child labour in rural Pakistan. Consistent, at least in part, with our theoretical framework, we find that extra-household child labour and schooling costs are positively related whereas intra-household child labour is insensitive to changes in the costs of schooling. Our results suggest that reduction in schooling costs will have limited success in the abatement of child labour in rural Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Gautam Hazarika & Arjun Bedi, 2003. "Schooling Costs and Child Work in Rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(5), pages 29-64.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:39:y:2003:i:5:p:29-64
    DOI: 10.1080/00220380412331333139
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    Cited by:

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    2. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, in: T. Paul Schultz & John A. Strauss (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 57, pages 3607-3709, Elsevier.
    3. Augendra BHUKUTH & Jérôme BALLET & Bako Nirina RABEVOHITRA & Patrick RASOLOFO, 2014. "Analysing the Effects of Crop Shocks on Child Work: the Case of the Morondava District in Madagascar," Cahiers du GREThA (2007-2019) 2014-17, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée (GREThA).
    4. Krauss, Alexander, 2017. "Understanding child labour beyond the standard economic assumption of monetary poverty," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 68497, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. Marito Garcia & Jean Fares, 2008. "Youth in Africa's Labor Market," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6578, November.
    6. Dammert, Ana C. & de Hoop, Jacobus & Mvukiyehe, Eric & Rosati, Furio C., 2018. "Effects of public policy on child labor: Current knowledge, gaps, and implications for program design," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 104-123.
    7. Ragui Assaad & Deborah Levison & Nadia Zibani, 2010. "The Effect of Domestic Work on Girls' Schooling: Evidence from Egypt," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 79-128.
    8. Daniela Vuri, 2010. "The Effect of Availability of School and Distance to School on Children's Time Allocation in Ghana," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(s1), pages 46-75, December.
    9. Francesca Francavilla & Gianna Claudia Giannelli, 2010. "The relation between child work and the employment of mothers in India," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 232-257, May.
    10. Hazarika, Gautam & Sarangi, Sudipta, 2008. "Household Access to Microcredit and Child Work in Rural Malawi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 843-859, May.
    11. He, Huajing, 2016. "Child labour and academic achievement: Evidence from Gansu Province in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 130-150.
    12. Lee, Jieun & Kim, Hyoungjong & Rhee, Dong-Eun, 2021. "No harmless child labor: The effect of child labor on academic achievement in francophone Western and Central Africa," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 80(C).
    13. Monazza Aslam & Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2008. "Gender and household education expenditure in Pakistan," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(20), pages 2573-2591.
    14. Admassie, A. & Bedi, A.S., 2003. "Attending school : two 'Rs' and child work in rural Ethiopia," ISS Working Papers - General Series 19146, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    15. Hazarika, Gautam & Bedi, Arjun S., 2006. "Child Work and Schooling Costs in Rural Northern India," IZA Discussion Papers 2136, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Michael Bourdillon, 2006. "Forum 2006," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 37(6), pages 1201-1226, November.

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