IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/ijecbs/v13y2006i1p111-128.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A Cointegration Analysis of Car Advertising and Sales Data in the Presence of Structural Change

Author

Listed:
  • Vicente Esteve
  • Francisco Requena

Abstract

This paper examines whether there is a long-run stable equilibrium relationship between advertising and sales across the market segments of the UK car industry over the period 1971-2001. In order to achieve this goal, we allow for structural breaks in the series using cointegration techniques. The results show the existence of long-run equilibrium relationships in all six market segments, although in four of them the relationship is not stable. In general, one structural change is detected in the late 1970s and another in the early 1990s, coinciding with two economic recessions. When we do not account for structural changes, the estimated long-run elasticities of advertising on sales are seen to be substantially downwardly biased. Finally, a noticeable increase is observed in long-run elasticities in most car market segments during the nineties with respect to previous decades.

Suggested Citation

  • Vicente Esteve & Francisco Requena, 2006. "A Cointegration Analysis of Car Advertising and Sales Data in the Presence of Structural Change," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 111-128.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ijecbs:v:13:y:2006:i:1:p:111-128
    DOI: 10.1080/13571510500520036
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/13571510500520036
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gallet, Craig A. & List, John A., 2001. "Market share instability: an application of unit root tests to the cigarette industry," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(5), pages 473-480.
    2. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
    3. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
    4. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    5. DeJong, David N, et al, 1992. "Integration versus Trend Stationarity in Time Series," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 423-433, March.
    6. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
    7. Pierre Perron & Serena Ng, 1996. "Useful Modifications to some Unit Root Tests with Dependent Errors and their Local Asymptotic Properties," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(3), pages 435-463.
    8. Andrews, Donald W K & Ploberger, Werner, 1994. "Optimal Tests When a Nuisance Parameter Is Present Only under the Alternative," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(6), pages 1383-1414, November.
    9. Perron, Pierre & Rodriguez, Gabriel, 2003. "GLS detrending, efficient unit root tests and structural change," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 1-27, July.
    10. Vogelsang, Timothy J & Perron, Pierre, 1998. "Additional Tests for a Unit Root Allowing for a Break in the Trend Function at an Unknown Time," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1073-1100, November.
    11. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    12. Caroline Elliott, 2001. "A Cointegration Analysis of Advertising and Sales Data," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 18(4), pages 417-426, June.
    13. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 2003. "Computation and analysis of multiple structural change models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 1-22.
    14. Perron, Pierre, 1997. "Further evidence on breaking trend functions in macroeconomic variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 355-385, October.
    15. Ogaki, Masao & Park, Joon Y., 1997. "A cointegration approach to estimating preference parameters," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 107-134.
    16. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    17. Campos, Julia & Ericsson, Neil R. & Hendry, David F., 1996. "Cointegration tests in the presence of structural breaks," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 187-220, January.
    18. Andrews, Donald W. K. & Lee, Inpyo & Ploberger, Werner, 1996. "Optimal changepoint tests for normal linear regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 9-38, January.
    19. Seldom, Barry J. & Jung, Chulho, 1995. "The length of the effect of aggregate advertising on aggregate consumption," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 207-211, May.
    20. Thomas, Lacy Glenn, 1989. "Advertising in Consumer Goods Industries: Durability, Economies of Scale, and Heterogeneity," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(1), pages 163-193, April.
    21. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 2003. "Critical values for multiple structural change tests," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 6(1), pages 72-78, June.
    22. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-856, July.
    23. Andrews, Donald W K & Monahan, J Christopher, 1992. "An Improved Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(4), pages 953-966, July.
    24. Shin, Yongcheol, 1994. "A Residual-Based Test of the Null of Cointegration Against the Alternative of No Cointegration," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(1), pages 91-115, March.
    25. Ng, S. & Perron, P., 1994. "Unit Root Tests ARMA Models with Data Dependent Methods for the Selection of the Truncation Lag," Cahiers de recherche 9423, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
    26. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
    27. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    28. David Paton, 2002. "Advertising, quality and sales," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(4), pages 431-438.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Shujahat Haider Hashmi & Fan Hongzhong & Zeeshan Fareed & Roksana Bannya, 2020. "Testing Non-Linear Nexus between Service Sector and CO 2 Emissions in Pakistan," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(3), pages 1-29, January.
    2. Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Bekun, Festus Victor & Etokakpan, Mfonobong Udom & Driha, Oana M., 2019. "A road to enhancements in natural gas use in Iran: A multivariate modelling approach," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    3. A. Oznur Umit & H. Isil Alkan, 2016. "The Effects of Foreign Direct Investments and Economic Growth on Employment and Female Employment: A Time Series Analysis With Structural Breaks For Turkey," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), International Hellenic University (IHU), Kavala Campus, Greece (formerly Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology - EMaTTech), vol. 9(3), pages 43-49, December.
    4. Bulut, Umit & Muratoglu, Gonul, 2018. "Renewable energy in Turkey: Great potential, low but increasing utilization, and an empirical analysis on renewable energy-growth nexus," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 240-250.
    5. Arzu Tay Bayramoglu & Deniz Sukruoglu, 2016. "Non-Energy Import Demand Function in Turkey: New Evidence," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 6(12), pages 750-761, December.
    6. repec:agr:journl:v:4(605):y:2015:i:4(605):p:133-144 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Katircioğlu, Salih Turan, 2014. "Testing the tourism-induced EKC hypothesis: The case of Singapore," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 383-391.
    8. Umit BULUT, 2015. "The Interest Rate Corridor as a Macroprudential Tool to Mitigate Rapid Growth in Credits: Evidence from Turkey," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(4(605), W), pages 133-144, Winter.
    9. Cumhur ÞAHÝN & Hüseyin ALTAY, 2016. "Examination of the Relationship between Turkey’s Credit Default Swap (CDS) Points and Unemployment," Eurasian Business & Economics Journal, Eurasian Academy Of Sciences, vol. 4(4), pages 52-67, January.
    10. Kayhan, Selim & Adiguzel, Uğur & Bayat, Tayfur & Lebe, Fuat, 2010. "Causality Relationship between Real GDP and Electricity Consumption in Romania (2001-2010)," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(4), pages 169-183, December.
    11. Umit Bulut, 2016. "How Far Ahead Does the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey Look?," Journal of Central Banking Theory and Practice, Central bank of Montenegro, vol. 5(1), pages 99-111.
    12. repec:agr:journl:v:4(605):y:2015:i:4(605):p:135-146 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Katircioğlu, Salih Turan & Taşpinar, Nigar, 2017. "Testing the moderating role of financial development in an environmental Kuznets curve: Empirical evidence from Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 68(P1), pages 572-586.
    14. Bilgili, Faik & Koçak, Emrah & Bulut, Ümit & Sualp, M. Nedim, 2016. "How did the US economy react to shale gas production revolution? An advanced time series approach," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 116(P1), pages 963-977.
    15. Fabrizio Germano, 2008. "On commercial media bias," Economics Working Papers 1133, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Apr 2009.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Vicente Esteve, 2004. "Política fiscal y productividad del trabajo en la economía española: un análisis de series temporales," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Business, vol. 19(1), pages 3-29, June.
    2. Vicente Esteve & Cecilio Tamarit, 2018. "Public debt and economic growth in Spain, 1851–2013," Cliometrica, Springer;Cliometric Society (Association Francaise de Cliométrie), vol. 12(2), pages 219-249, May.
    3. Esteve, Vicente & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2012. "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for Spain? Fresh evidence from old data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2696-2703.
    4. Vicente Esteve & Manuel Navarro-Ibáñez & María A. Prats, 2013. "The present value model of U.S. stock prices revisited: long-run evidence with structural breaks, 1871-2010," Working Papers 1305, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    5. Vicente Esteve & Juan Sanchis, "undated". "Estimating the substitutability between private and public consumption: the case of Spain, 1960- 2001," Studies on the Spanish Economy 161, FEDEA.
    6. Vicente Esteve & Manuel Navarro-Ibáñez & María A. Prats, 2013. "The present value model of US stock prices revisited: long-run evidence with structural breaks, 1871-2010," Working Papers 04/13, Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social.
    7. Esteve, Vicente & Navarro-Ibáñez, Manuel & Prats, María A., 2013. "The Spanish term structure of interest rates revisited: Cointegration with multiple structural breaks, 1974–2010," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 24-34.
    8. Giorgio Canarella & Rangan Gupta & Stephen M. Miller & Stephen K. Pollard, 2019. "Unemployment rate hysteresis and the great recession: exploring the metropolitan evidence," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 56(1), pages 61-79, January.
    9. Esteve, Vicente & Navarro-Ibáñez, Manuel & Prats, María A., 2020. "Stock prices, dividends, and structural changes in the long-term: The case of U.S," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    10. Bajo-Rubio, Oscar & Diaz-Roldan, Carmen & Esteve, Vicente, 2007. "Change of regime and Phillips curve stability: The case of Spain, 1964-2002," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 453-462.
    11. Niels Haldrup & Robinson Kruse & Timo Teräsvirta & Rasmus T. Varneskov, 2013. "Unit roots, non-linearities and structural breaks," Chapters, in: Nigar Hashimzade & Michael A. Thornton (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Empirical Macroeconomics, chapter 4, pages 61-94, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Robert Amano, "undated". "Empirical Evidence on the Cost of Adjustment and Dynamic Labour Demand," Staff Working Papers 95-3, Bank of Canada.
    13. Ketenci, Natalya, 2015. "Capital mobility in Russia," Russian Journal of Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 386-403.
    14. Robert A. Amano & Wai-Ming Ho & Tony S. Wirjanto, 1999. "Intraperiod and Intertemporal Substitution in Import Demand," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 84, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
    15. Oscar Bajo-Rubio & Carmen Diaz-Roldan & Vicente Esteve, 2008. "US deficit sustainability revisited: a multiple structural change approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(12), pages 1609-1613.
    16. Natalya Ketenci, 2016. "The bilateral trade flows of the EU in the presence of structural breaks," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 1369-1398, December.
    17. O Bajo-Rubio & C Diaz-Roldan & V Esteve, 2010. "Testing the Fisher effect in the presence of structural change: A case study of the UK, 1966-2007," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 15(2), pages 1-16, September.
    18. Vasudeva N. R. Murthy & Natalya Ketenci, 2017. "Is technology still a major driver of health expenditure in the United States? Evidence from cointegration analysis with multiple structural breaks," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 29-50, March.
    19. Ebru Tomris AYDOĞAN & Çağrı Levent USLU & Natalya KETENCİ, 2017. "Determinants of Economic Growth in Emerging Countries Under Structural Breaks Consideration," Sosyoekonomi Journal, Sosyoekonomi Society, issue 25(33).
    20. Ömer YALÇINKAYA & Vedat KAYA, 2017. "Eğitimin Ekonomik Büyüme Üzerindeki Etkileri: PISA Katılımcıları Üzerinde Bir Uygulama (1990-2014)," Sosyoekonomi Journal, Sosyoekonomi Society, issue 25(33).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Advertising; Sales; Cointegration; Structural Break; Car Industry; JEL Classifications: C12; C22; L10;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:ijecbs:v:13:y:2006:i:1:p:111-128. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/CIJB20 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.