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Job Creation and the Self-employed Firm Size: evidence from Spain

Author

Listed:
  • Emilio Congregado

    (Universidad de Huelva)

  • Vicente Esteve

    (Universidad de Valencia and Universidad de La Laguna)

  • Antonio A. Golpe

    (Universidad de Huelva)

Abstract

Over the last decade, Spain created more jobs than any other country in Europe; however, now it is destroying them at an equal pace. Nevertheless, the relationship between the level of employment and the level of self-employment has remained relatively stable. In this context, there is a considerable policy interest in the way in which the self-employed firm in Spain creates and destroys employment, i.e., in the role of the self-employed as creators of additional job opportunities. This paper provides evidence of the existence of a long-term relationship between the self-employed firm that hires external labor and employees hired by third parties in Spain, while accounting for the existence of an abrupt shift in the size of self-employed firms during the previous crisis (1991 to 1993). These findings are qualified testing whether this relationship is time-dependent. Our results suggest that the null hypothesis of linear cointegration would be rejected in favor of a two-regime threshold cointegration model, that is, in favor of a time-sensitive relationship with two opposite regimes. These two regimes differ in the way that the two components of the self-employed firm size respond to restore equilibrium. In this paper, alternative rationales for explaining these findings are also discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Emilio Congregado & Vicente Esteve & Antonio A. Golpe, 2012. "Job Creation and the Self-employed Firm Size: evidence from Spain," Working Papers 1202, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
  • Handle: RePEc:eec:wpaper:1202
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ferrando-Latorre, Sandra & Velilla, Jorge, 2018. "La transmisión intergeneracional de la actividad emprendedora en las familias españolas [Intergeneration transmissions of the entrepreneurial activity in Spanish households]," MPRA Paper 83573, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Molina, Jose Alberto & Velilla, Jorge & Ortega, Raquel, 2015. "The decision to become an entrepreneur in Spain: The role of the household financial situation," MPRA Paper 68101, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Gokmen, Gunes & Morin, Annaig, 2021. "Investment shocks and inequality dynamics," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 570-579.
    4. Chang, Ming-Jen & Su, Che-Yi, 2014. "The dynamic relationship between exchange rates and macroeconomic fundamentals: Evidence from Pacific Rim countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 220-246.
    5. Velilla, Jorge, 2018. "The entrepreneurial activity using GEM data: evidence for Spain (national and regional) and for Europe," MPRA Paper 85568, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Self-employed firm size; Entrepreneurship; Job Creation; Cointegration; Self-employment; Structural Break; Threshold cointegration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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