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Job Creators

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  • Marc Cowling
  • Mark Taylor
  • Peter Mitchell

Abstract

Job creation is perhaps the key political and economic issue of our time, yet this is one of only three papers to date to consider the nature of job creation amongst the self-employed. We develop a utility based model of self-employment which allows for the self-employed with employees. The theory predicts that the higher the endowment of human capital the greater the likelihood of the entrepreneur employing additional labour, subject to overcoming any capital constraints. Empirical testing suggests that the decision to hire employees is related to work and lifetime experiences rather than academic achievements. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd and The Victoria University of Manchester, 2004..

Suggested Citation

  • Marc Cowling & Mark Taylor & Peter Mitchell, 2004. "Job Creators," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 72(5), pages 601-617, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:manchs:v:72:y:2004:i:5:p:601-617
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kessides, Ioannis N, 1990. "Towards a Testable Model of Entry: A Study of the U.S. Manufacturing Industries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 57(226), pages 219-238, May.
    2. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
    3. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
    4. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
    5. Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-266, May.
    6. Bernard F. Lentz & David N. Laband, 1990. "Entrepreneurial Success and Occupational Inheritance among Proprietors," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 23(3), pages 563-579, August.
    7. Robert Carroll & Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Mark Rider & Harvey Rosen, 1996. "Income Taxes and Entrepreneur' Use of Labor," Working Papers 752, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    8. Cressy, Robert, 1996. "Are Business Startups Debt-Rationed?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1253-1270, September.
    9. Robert E. Lucas Jr., 1978. "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 508-523, Autumn.
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    11. Greg Hundley, 2001. "Why Women Earn Less Than Men in Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 22(4), pages 817-829, October.
    12. Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence from Panel Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 539-565, November.
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    15. Cowling, Marc & Mitchell, Peter, 1997. "The Evolution of U.K. Self-Employment: A Study of Government Policy and the Role of the Macroeconomy," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 65(4), pages 427-442, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:bla:jemstr:v:26:y:2017:i:1:p:3-34 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Carolina Castagnetti & Luisa Rosti, 2011. "Who skims the cream of the Italian graduate crop? Wage employment versus self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 223-234, February.
    3. Robert W. Fairlie & Javier Miranda, 2017. "Taking the Leap: The Determinants of Entrepreneurs Hiring Their First Employee," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 3-34, February.
    4. Emilio Congregado & Antonio Golpe & Simon Parker, 2012. "The dynamics of entrepreneurship: hysteresis, business cycles and government policy," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 1239-1261, December.
    5. Andrew E. Burke & Michael A. Nolan & Felix R. FitzRoy, 2006. "Education and Regional Job Creation by the Self-Employed: The English North-South Divide," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2006-07, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    6. Robin Boadway & Nicolas Marceau & Maurice Marchand & Marianne Vigneault, 1998. "Entrepreneurship, Asymmetric Information, and Unemployment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 5(3), pages 307-327, July.
    7. Emilio Congregado & Vicente Esteve & Antonio A. Golpe, 2012. "Job Creation and the Self-employed Firm Size: evidence from Spain," Working Papers 1202, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    8. Jolanda Hessels & José María Millán & Concepción Román, 2015. "The Importance of Being in Control of Business: Work Satisfaction of Employers, Own-account Workers and Employees," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 15-047/VII, Tinbergen Institute.
    9. José María Millán & Emilio Congregado & Concepción Román, 2010. "Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 72, pages 45-76.
    10. Alex Coad & Kristian Nielsen & Bram Timmermans, 2017. "My first employee: an empirical investigation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 25-45, January.
    11. Robert Carroll & Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Mark Rider & Harvey Rosen, 1996. "Income Taxes and Entrepreneur' Use of Labor," Working Papers 752, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    12. Hessels, Jolanda & Rietveld, Cornelius A. & van der Zwan, Peter, 2017. "Self-employment and work-related stress: The mediating role of job control and job demand," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 178-196.
    13. Millán, Ana & Millán, José María & Román, Concepción & van Stel, André, 2013. "How does employment protection legislation influence hiring and firing decisions by the smallest firms?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(3), pages 444-448.
    14. Román, Concepción & Congregado, Emilio & Millán, José María, 2013. "Start-up incentives: Entrepreneurship policy or active labour market programme?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 151-175.
    15. Lee, Neil & Sameen, Hiba & Cowling, Marc, 2015. "Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 370-380.
    16. Aparna Mathur, 2010. "Health insurance and job creation by the self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 299-317, October.
    17. Taylor, Mark P, 1999. "Survival of the Fittest? An Analysis of Self-Employment Duration in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(454), pages 140-155, March.
    18. Millán, José María & Congregado, Emilio & Román, Concepción, 2014. "Persistence in entrepreneurship and its implications for the European entrepreneurial promotion policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 83-106.
    19. Congregado, Emilio & Golpe, Antonio A. & Carmona, Mónica, 2010. "Is it a good policy to promote self-employment for job creation? Evidence from Spain," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 828-842, November.

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