Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries
We develop a new theoretical framework that explains the engagement in child labor of children in developing countries. This framework distinguishes three levels (household, district and nation) and three groups of explanatory variables: Resources, Structure and Culture. Each of the three groups refers to another strand of the literature; economics, sociology and anthropology. The framework is tested by applying multilevel analysis on data for 239,120 children living in 221 districts of 18 developing countries. This approach allows us to simultaneously investigate effects of household and context factors. At the household level, we find that resources and structural characteristics influence child labor, whereas cultural characteristics have no effect. With regard to context factors, we find that children work more in rural areas, especially if there are more unskilled manual jobs, and in more traditional urban areas. In more developed regions, girls tend to work significantly less. Copyright The Author(s) 2013
Volume (Year): 110 (2013)
Issue (Month): 2 (January)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.springer.com|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.springer.com/economics/journal/11135|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Sonia Bhalotra & Chris Heady, 2000.
"Child farm labour: theory and evidence,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
6654, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Sonia R Bhalotra & Chris Heady, 2000. "Child Farm Labour: Theory and Evidence," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 24, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Huisman, Janine & Smits, Jeroen, 2009. "Effects of Household- and District-Level Factors on Primary School Enrollment in 30 Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 179-193, January.
- E. delap, 2001. "Economic and Cultural Forces in the Child Labour Debate: Evidence from Urban Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(4), pages 1-22.
- Barro, Robert J., 1999.
"Determinants of Democracy,"
3451297, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Gianna Claudia Giannelli & Francesca Francavilla, 2007.
"The Relation between Child Labour and Mothers’ Work: The Case of India,"
CHILD Working Papers
wp22_07, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
- Francavilla, Francesca & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia, 2007. "The Relation between Child Labour and Mothers' Work: The Case of India," IZA Discussion Papers 3099, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kondylis, Florence & Manacorda, Marco, 2010.
"School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7890, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Florence Kondylis & Marco Manacorda, 2012. "School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(1), pages 32-63.
- Florence Kondylis & Marco Manacorda, 2010. "School Proximity and Child Labor Evidence from Rurul Tanzania," CEP Discussion Papers dp1035, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Sharmistha Self & Richard Grabowski, 2009. "Agricultural technology and child labor: evidence from India," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 67-78, 01.
- Handa, Sudhanshu, 2002. "Raising primary school enrolment in developing countries: The relative importance of supply and demand," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 103-128, October.
- M.Biggeri & L.Guarcello & S.Lyon & F.Rosati, 2003. "The Puzzle of 'Idle' Children: Neither in School nor performing Economic Activity: Evidence from six Countries," UCW Working Paper 5, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Diganta Mukherjee & Saswati Das, 2008. "Role of Parental Education in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: Urban India in the Last Decade," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 89(2), pages 305-322, November.
- Takashi KUROSAKI & Seiro ITO & Nobuhiko FUWA & Kensuke KUBO & Yasuyuki SAWADA, 2006. "Child Labor And School Enrollment In Rural India: Whose Education Matters?," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 44(4), pages 440-464.
- Saswati Das & Diganta Mukherjee, 2007. "Role of women in schooling and child labour decision: the case of urban boys in India," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 82(3), pages 463-486, July.
- Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
- Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
- Nardinelli, Clark, 1980. "Child Labor and the Factory Acts," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(04), pages 739-755, December.
- C. Simon Fan, 2004. "Relative wage, child labor, and human capital," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(4), pages 687-700, October.
- Sundaram, Aparna & Vanneman, Reeve, 2008. "Gender Differentials in Literacy in India: The Intriguing Relationship with Women's Labor Force Participation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 128-143, January.
- Guy B. Nkamleu & Anne Kielland, 2006. "Modeling farmers' decisions on child labor and schooling in the cocoa sector: a multinomial logit analysis in Côte d'Ivoire," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(3), pages 319-333, November.
- Eric Edmonds, 2006. "Understanding sibling differences in child labor," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 19(4), pages 795-821, October.
- Marigee P. Bacolod & Priya Ranjan, 2008. "Why Children Work, Attend School, or Stay Idle: The Roles of Ability and Household Wealth," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56, pages 791-828.
- Uma S. Kambhampati & Raji Rajan, 2004.
"The 'Nowhere' Children: Patriarchy and the Role of Girls in India's Rural Economy,"
Economics & Management Discussion Papers
em-dp2004-21, Henley Business School, Reading University.
- Uma Kambhampati & Raji Rajan, 2008. "The 'Nowhere' Children: Patriarchy and the Role of Girls in India's Rural Economy," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(9), pages 1309-1341.
- Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
- Chesnokova Tatyana & Vaithianathan Rhema, 2008. "Lucky Last? Intra-Sibling Allocation of Child Labor," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-30, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:110:y:2013:i:2:p:819-836. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.