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Modeling farmers' decisions on child labor and schooling in the cocoa sector: a multinomial logit analysis in Côte d'Ivoire

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  • Guy B. Nkamleu
  • Anne Kielland

Abstract

Since 2000, children working in the cocoa sector of Côte d'Ivoire have found themselves in the media spotlight. This situation has assumed particular importance because approximately 40% of the world's cocoa production occurs in Côte d'Ivoire. Concerned parties have since taken great interest in this thorny issue. There is a need to better understand the reality of child labor utilization in this sector. This article investigates child labor issues in the cocoa sector of Côte d'Ivoire in conjunction with schooling status of children. The study is based on a survey done in 2002, over a representative sample of more than 11,000 members of cocoa households. The multinomial logit model is used to capture choice probabilities across work and/or school options. The results reveal that child labor in cocoa farms and nonenrollment in schools are significant. Moreover, many children are involved in potentially dangerous and/or harmful tasks. Data also highlight gender and age dimensions in the participation of children in tasks and the way labor is allocated. Econometric results generally indicate that the gender and age of children, whether or not the child is the biological child of the household head, parents' education, the origin of the farmer, household welfare, household size, the household dependency ratio, the size of other perennial crop farms, the number of sharecroppers working with the household head, and communities' characteristics are all pertinent in explaining the child work/schooling outcome in the cocoa sector of Côte d'Ivoire. Copyright 2006 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Suggested Citation

  • Guy B. Nkamleu & Anne Kielland, 2006. "Modeling farmers' decisions on child labor and schooling in the cocoa sector: a multinomial logit analysis in Côte d'Ivoire," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(3), pages 319-333, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:agecon:v:35:y:2006:i:3:p:319-333
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise, 2006. "Poverty and Child Farm Labor in Africa: Wealth Paradox or bad Orthodoxy," MPRA Paper 15105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Bérenger Valérie & Audrey Verdier‐Chouchane, 2016. "Working Paper 230 - Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference?," Working Paper Series 2323, African Development Bank.
    3. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise & Fox, Louise, 2006. "Taking Stock of Research on Regional Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 15112, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. repec:bla:agecon:v:48:y:2017:i:3:p:291-299 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Ellen Webbink & Jeroen Smits & Eelke Jong, 2013. "Household and Context Determinants of Child Labor in 221 Districts of 18 Developing Countries," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 110(2), pages 819-836, January.
    6. Souleymane Soumahoro, 2014. "Export Taxes and Consumption: A ‘Natural Experiment’ from Côte d'Ivoire," HiCN Working Papers 182, Households in Conflict Network.
    7. Julián Arteaga Vallejo, 2016. "Land, Child Labor, and Schooling: Longitudinal evidence from Colombia and Mexico," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 014977, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
    8. Delphine Boutin, 2012. "Family farming, child labour and the wealth paradox: evidence from Mali," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(4), pages 3471-3479.
    9. Audrey Verdier-Chouchane & Valérie Bérenger & Audrey Verdier-Chouchane, 2016. "Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference?," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S2), pages 177-190, October.
    10. Amao, Ifeoluwapo & Akinlade, Roseline, 2014. "Child labour among Horticultural Households in Bauchi State, Nigeria: A gender perspective," MPRA Paper 55708, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Kimhi, Ayal, 2007. "Does Land Reform In Transition Countries Increase Child Labor? Evidence From The Republic Of Georgia," Discussion Papers 7147, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Agricultural Economics and Management.
    12. Phu Nguyen-Van & Cyrielle Poiraud & Nguyen To-The, 2017. "Modeling farmers’ decisions on tea varieties in Vietnam: a multinomial logit analysis," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 48(3), pages 291-299, May.
    13. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise & Keho, Yaya & Gockowski, Jim & David, Soniia, 2007. "Investing in agrochemicals in the cocoa sector of Côte d’Ivoire: hypotheses, evidence and policy implications," MPRA Paper 14656, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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