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Analyzing and forecasting business cycles in a small open economy: A dynamic factor model for Singapore


  • Hwee Kwan Chow


  • Keen Meng Choy



A dynamic factor model is applied to a large panel dataset of Singapore’s macroeconomic variables and global economic indicators with the initial objective of analysing business cycles in a small open economy. The empirical results suggest that four common factors – which can broadly be interpreted as world, regional, electronics and domestic economic cycles – capture a large proportion of the co-variation in the quarterly time series. The estimated factor model also explains well the observed fluctuations in real economic activity and price inflation, leading us to use it in forecasting Singapore’s business cycles. We find that the forecasts generated by the factors are generally more accurate than the predictions of univariate models and vector autoregressions that employ leading indicators.

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  • Hwee Kwan Chow & Keen Meng Choy, 2009. "Analyzing and forecasting business cycles in a small open economy: A dynamic factor model for Singapore," OECD Journal: Journal of Business Cycle Measurement and Analysis, OECD Publishing, Centre for International Research on Economic Tendency Surveys, vol. 2009(1), pages 19-41.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:stdkab:5ksb9df5nqbs

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Mariano, Roberto S. & Ozmucur, Suleyman, 2015. "High-Mixed-Frequency Dynamic Latent Factor Forecasting Models for GDP in the Philippines/Modelos de factores dinámicos latentes con datos mixtos de alta frecuencia aplicados a la predicción del PIB en," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 33, pages 451-462, Mayo.
    2. Mendoza, Liu & Morales, Daniel, 2013. "Construyendo un índice coincidente de recesión: Una aplicación para la economía peruana," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 26, pages 81-100.
    3. Mendoza, Liu & Morales, Daniel, 2012. "Constructing a real-time coincident recession index: an application to the Peruvian economy," Working Papers 2012-020, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    4. Mapa, Dennis S. & Simbulan, Maria Christina, 2014. "Analyzing and Forecasting Movements of the Philippine Economy using the Dynamic Factor Models (DFM)," MPRA Paper 54478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Kong Yam Tan & Tilak Abeysinghe & Khee Giap Tan, 2015. "Shifting Drivers of Growth: Policy Implications for ASEAN-5," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 14(1), pages 157-173, Winter/Sp.

    More about this item


    Business Cycle; Dynamic Factor Model; Forecasting; Singapore;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications


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