IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jsusta/v11y2019i3p887-d204441.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Firm Size and Age mediating the Firm Survival-Hedging Effect: Hayes’ 3-Way Parallel Approach

Author

Listed:
  • Henry Okwo

    () (Department of Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu 400001, Nigeria)

  • Charity Ezenwakwelu

    () (Department of Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu 400001, Nigeria)

  • Anthony Igwe

    () (Department of Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu 400001, Nigeria)

  • Benedict Imhanrenialena

    () (Department of Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu 400001, Nigeria)

Abstract

A James Gaskin Excel Macro Analysis is performed to determine the reliability of our scales, and a 3-way parallel mediation using the Andrew Hayes’ PROCESS model is applied to test the formulated hypotheses. Results show that hedging has a direct effect on firms’ survival; firms’ size and age individually do not strongly influence these effects, but a combination of the two does. We, therefore, concluded that while the hedging-survival effect exists on all forms of hedging, the practice of hedging is consequential for firms on the premise of their ages and numbers of employees.

Suggested Citation

  • Henry Okwo & Charity Ezenwakwelu & Anthony Igwe & Benedict Imhanrenialena, 2019. "Firm Size and Age mediating the Firm Survival-Hedging Effect: Hayes’ 3-Way Parallel Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-17, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:3:p:887-:d:204441
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/887/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/3/887/
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Serguei Kaniovski & Michael Peneder, 2008. "Determinants of firm survival: a duration analysis using the generalized gamma distribution," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 41-58, March.
    2. Henny Romijn & Sanne Heijnen & Jouke Rom Colthoff & Boris De Jong & Janske Van Eijck, 2014. "Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(9), pages 1-33, September.
    3. Giarratana, Marco S. & Fosfuri, Andrea, 2004. "Product strategies and startups' survival in turbulent industries: evidence from the security software industry," DEE - Working Papers. Business Economics. WB wb044816, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
    4. Niclas Hagelin, 2003. "Why firms hedge with currency derivatives: an examination of transaction and translation exposure," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 55-69.
    5. Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Exports, imports and firm survival: first evidence for manufacturing enterprises in Germany," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(1), pages 113-130, March.
    6. Kelsey D. Wei & Laura T. Starks, 2013. "Foreign Exchange Exposure Elasticity and Financial Distress," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 42(4), pages 709-735, December.
    7. Michael Schwartz, 2012. "Incubation time, incubator age, and firm survival after graduation," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 15(1/2), pages 108-130.
    8. Wiklund, Johan & Baker, Ted & Shepherd, Dean, 2010. "The age-effect of financial indicators as buffers against the liability of newness," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 423-437, July.
    9. Mian, Shehzad L., 1996. "Evidence on Corporate Hedging Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(3), pages 419-439, September.
    10. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Michel Quere, 2010. "Market Selection Along the Firm Life Cycle," Chapters, in: Jean-Luc Gaffard & Evens Salies (ed.),Innovation, Economic Growth and the Firm, chapter 5, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Elena Cefis & Orietta Marsili, 2005. "A matter of life and death: innovation and firm survival," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(6), pages 1167-1192, December.
    12. Fung, Loretta & Liu, Jin-Tan, 2009. "The impact of real exchange rate movements on firm performance: A case study of Taiwanese manufacturing firms," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 85-96, January.
    13. Dirk Czarnitzki & Andrew A. Toole, 2013. "The R&D Investment–Uncertainty Relationship: Do Strategic Rivalry and Firm Size Matter?," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(1), pages 15-28, January.
    14. Dang, Chongyu & (Frank) Li, Zhichuan & Yang, Chen, 2018. "Measuring firm size in empirical corporate finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 159-176.
    15. Lubos Pastor & Pietro Veronesi, 2009. "Learning in Financial Markets," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 361-381, November.
    16. Kristien Coucke & Leo Sleuwaegen, 2008. "Offshoring as a survival strategy: evidence from manufacturing firms in Belgium," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(8), pages 1261-1277, December.
    17. Marco Grazzi & Daniele Moschella, 2018. "Small, young, and exporters: New evidence on the determinants of firm growth," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 125-152, January.
    18. Norashidah Mohamed Nor & Nor Ghani Md. Nor & Ahmad Zainuddin Abdullah & Suhaila Abd. Jalil, 2007. "Flexibility and small firms' survival: further evidence from Malaysian manufacturing," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(12), pages 931-934.
    19. Costas Arkolakis & Theodore Papageorgiou & Olga Timoshenko, 2018. "Firm Learning and Growth," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 27, pages 146-168, January.
    20. Jen Baggs & Eugene Beaulieu & Loretta Fung, 2009. "Firm survival, performance, and the exchange rate," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 42(2), pages 393-421, May.
    21. Serguey Braguinsky & Atsushi Ohyama, 2011. "Noisy selection model and the evolution of firm size and within-firm earnings distributions: a unified approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 59-72, July.
    22. Morey, Matthew R. & Simpson, Marc W., 2001. "To hedge or not to hedge: the performance of simple strategies for hedging foreign exchange risk," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 213-223, April.
    23. Cenni, Stefano & Monferrà, Stefano & Salotti, Valentina & Sangiorgi, Marco & Torluccio, Giuseppe, 2015. "Credit rationing and relationship lending. Does firm size matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 249-265.
    24. Giovanni Dosi & Marco Grazzi & Daniele Moschella, 2017. "What do firms know? What do they produce? A new look at the relationship between patenting profiles and patterns of product diversification," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 413-429, February.
    25. Miguel Manjón-Antolín & Josep-Maria Arauzo-Carod, 2008. "Firm survival: methods and evidence," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 1-24, March.
    26. Das, Sanghamitra, 1995. "Size, age and firm growth in an infant industry: The computer hardware industry in India," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 111-126, March.
    27. Sammo Kang & Soyoung Kim & Jeong Wook Lee, 2016. "Reexamining the Exchange Rate Exposure Puzzle by Classifying Exchange Rate Risks into Two Types," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(2), pages 116-133, June.
    28. Affaf Asghar Butt & Main Sajid Nazir & Hamera Arshad & Aamer Shahzad, 2018. "Corporate Derivatives and Ownership Concentration: Empirical Evidence of Non-Financial Firms Listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-15, June.
    29. Joaquin, Domingo Castelo & Khanna, Naveen, 2001. "Investment timing decisions under threat of potential competition: Why firm size matters1," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 1-17.
    30. Karl V. Lins & Henri Servaes & Ane Tamayo, 2011. "Does Fair Value Reporting Affect Risk Management? International Survey Evidence," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 40(3), pages 525-551, September.
    31. Andrew J.G. Cairns & Kevin Dowd & David Blake & Guy D. Coughlan, 2014. "Longevity hedge effectiveness: a decomposition," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 217-235, February.
    32. Marc Cowling & Weixi Liu & Ning Zhang, 2018. "Did firm age, experience, and access to finance count? SME performance after the global financial crisis," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 77-100, January.
    33. Micheline Goedhuys, 2007. "Learning, product innovation, and firm heterogeneity in developing countries; Evidence from Tanzania," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 269-292, April.
    34. Wernerfelt, Birger, 1997. "On the Nature and Scope of the Firm: An Adjustment-Cost Theory," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(4), pages 489-514, October.
    35. Rubio, Santiago J., 1992. "Adjustment costs, uncertainty, and the theory of investment: the case of non-renewable natural resources," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 139-153, September.
    36. Blake LeBaron, 2011. "Active and Passive Learning in Agent-based Financial Markets," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 35-43.
    37. Xinshu Zhao & John G. Lynch & Qimei Chen, 2010. "Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and Truths about Mediation Analysis," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 37(2), pages 197-206, August.
    38. Jeffrey G. Covin & Dennis P. Slevin, 1989. "Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(1), pages 75-87, January.
    39. Jia He & Lilian K. Ng, 1998. "The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 733-753, April.
    40. Binmore, Ken & Samuelson, Larry, 1997. "Muddling Through: Noisy Equilibrium Selection," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 235-265, June.
    41. Kazunobu Hayakawa, 2015. "Does firm size matter in exporting and using FTA schemes?," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(7), pages 883-905, October.
    42. Marco Cucculelli & Lidia Mannarino & Valeria Pupo & Fernanda Ricotta, 2014. "Owner-management, firm age and productivity in Italian family firms," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 99, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    43. E. Theodore Veit & Wallace W. Reiff, 1983. "Commercial banks and interest rate futures: A hedging survey," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(3), pages 283-293, September.
    44. Chandler, Gaylen N. & Hanks, Steven H., 1993. "Measuring the performance of emerging businesses: A validation study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 391-408, September.
    45. Zhang, Dongyang & Zheng, Wenping & Ning, Lutao, 2018. "Does innovation facilitate firm survival? Evidence from Chinese high-tech firms," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 458-468.
    46. Wiklund, Johan & Shepherd, Dean, 2005. "Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 71-91, January.
    47. Kristine Watson Hankins, 2011. "How Do Financial Firms Manage Risk? Unraveling the Interaction of Financial and Operational Hedging," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(12), pages 2197-2212, December.
    48. Kevin Aretz & Söhnke M. Bartram & Gunter Dufey, 2007. "Why hedge? Rationales for corporate hedging and value implications," Journal of Risk Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 8(5), pages 434-449, November.
    49. K. R. Shanmugam & Saumitra Bhaduri, 2002. "Size, age and firm growth in the Indian manufacturing sector," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(9), pages 607-613.
    50. J. P. Gould, 1968. "Adjustment Costs in the Theory of Investment of the Firm," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(1), pages 47-55.
    51. Lee-Lee Chong & Xiao-Jun Chang & Siow-Hooi Tan, 2014. "Determinants of corporate foreign exchange risk hedging," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(2), pages 176-188, January.
    52. Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. "On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-284, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    firm size; hedging; firm age; firm survival; mediation; Hayes;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:3:p:887-:d:204441. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.