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The effects of recessions across demographic groups

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  • Kristie M. Engemann
  • Howard J. Wall

Abstract

The burdens of a recession are not spread evenly across demographic groups. As the public and media noticed, from the start of the current recession in December 2007 through June 2009 men accounted for more than three-quarters of net job losses. Other differences have garnered less attention but are just as interesting. During the same period, the employment of single people fell at more than twice the rate that it did for married people and the decline for black workers was one and a half times that for white workers. To provide a more complete understanding of the effect of recessions, this paper examines the different effects of this and previous recessions across a range of demographic categories: sex, marital status, race, age, and education level.

Suggested Citation

  • Kristie M. Engemann & Howard J. Wall, 2010. "The effects of recessions across demographic groups," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 92(Jan), pages 1-26.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:2010:i:jan:p:1-26:n:v.92no.1
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Melvin Stephens, 2002. "Worker Displacement and the Added Worker Effect," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 504-537, July.
    2. DeRiviere, Linda, 2008. "Have we come a long way? Using the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics to revisit the 'pin money' theory," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2340-2367, December.
    3. Riccardo DiCecio & Kristie M. Engemann & Michael T. Owyang & Christopher H. Wheeler, 2008. "Changing trends in the labor force: a survey," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 90(Jan), pages 47-62.
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    2. Alfonso ARPAIA & Nicola CURCI, "undated". "EU labour market behaviour during the Great Recession," Working Papers wp2010-6, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
    3. Cutler, David M. & Huang, Wei & Lleras-Muney, Adriana, 2015. "When does education matter? The protective effect of education for cohorts graduating in bad times," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 63-73.
    4. Cynthia Bansak & Mary E. Graham & Allan A. Zebedee, 2012. "Business Cycles and Gender Diversification: An Analysis of Establishment-Level Gender Dissimilarity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 561-565, May.
    5. Julie L. Hotchkiss & Robert E. Moore, 2022. "Some Like it Hot: Assessing Longer-Term Labor Market Benefits from a High-Pressure Economy," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 18(2), pages 193-243, June.
    6. Owyang, Michael T. & Piger, Jeremy & Wall, Howard J., 2013. "Discordant city employment cycles," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 367-384.
    7. Jeffrey Thompson & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Recent Trends in the Distribution of Income: Labor, Wealth and More Complete Measures of Well Being," Working Papers wp225, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    8. Wilkinson, Lindsay R. & Schafer, Markus H. & Wilkinson, Renae, 2020. "How painful is a recession? An assessment of two future-oriented buffering mechanisms," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 255(C).
    9. Untaru, Elena-Nicoleta & Han, Heesup, 2021. "Protective measures against COVID-19 and the business strategies of the retail enterprises: Differences in gender, age, education, and income among shoppers," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    10. Aysegul Sahin & Jonathan L. Willis, 2011. "Employment patterns during the recovery: Who are getting the jobs and why?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 5-34.
    11. Latif, Ehsan, 2014. "The impact of recession on drinking and smoking behaviours in Canada," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 43-56.
    12. Alica Ida Bonk & Laure Simon, 2022. "From He-Cession to She-Stimulus? The labor market impact of fiscal policy across gender," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 309-334, May.
    13. Wall, Howard J., 2013. "The employment cycles of neighboring cities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 177-185.
    14. Kaswengi, Joseph & Diallo, Mbaye Fall, 2015. "Consumer choice of store brands across store formats: A panel data analysis under crisis periods," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 70-76.
    15. A.E Kusumastuti & J. A Putritamara & S. Azizah, 2021. "Hybrid Model of MSMEs for Livestock Hype Product Facing Consumer Sudden Shift on Pandemics," TechHub Journal, TechHub Research, vol. 1(2), pages 8-17, July.
    16. Bharadwaj, Prashant & Bietenbeck, Jan & Lundborg, Petter & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2019. "Birth weight and vulnerability to a macroeconomic crisis," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 136-144.

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    Keywords

    Recessions; Demography;

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