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The effects of recessions across demographic groups

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  • Kristie M. Engemann
  • Howard J. Wall

Abstract

The burdens of a recession are not spread evenly across demographic groups. The public and media, for example, noticed that, from the start of the current recession in December 2007 through June 2009, men accounted for more than three quarters of net job losses. Other differences have garnered less attention, but are just as interesting. During the same period, the employment of single people fell at more than twice the rate that it did for married people, while black employment fell at one-and-a-half times the rate that white employment did. To have a more complete understanding about what recessions mean for people, this paper examines the different effects of this and previous recessions on employment experiences across a range of demographic categories: sex, marital status, race, age, and education level.

Suggested Citation

  • Kristie M. Engemann & Howard J. Wall, 2009. "The effects of recessions across demographic groups," Working Papers 2009-052, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:2009-052
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Melvin Stephens, 2002. "Worker Displacement and the Added Worker Effect," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 504-537, July.
    2. DeRiviere, Linda, 2008. "Have we come a long way? Using the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics to revisit the 'pin money' theory," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2340-2367, December.
    3. Riccardo DiCecio & Kristie M. Engemann & Michael T. Owyang & Christopher H. Wheeler, 2008. "Changing trends in the labor force: a survey," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 90(Jan), pages 47-62.
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    Cited by:

    1. Guisinger, Amy Y., 2020. "Gender differences in the volatility of work hours and labor demand," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    2. Alfonso ARPAIA & Nicola CURCI, "undated". "EU labour market behaviour during the Great Recession," Working Papers wp2010-6, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
    3. Cutler, David M. & Huang, Wei & Lleras-Muney, Adriana, 2015. "When does education matter? The protective effect of education for cohorts graduating in bad times," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 63-73.
    4. Cynthia Bansak & Mary E. Graham & Allan A. Zebedee, 2012. "Business Cycles and Gender Diversification: An Analysis of Establishment-Level Gender Dissimilarity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 561-565, May.
    5. Owyang, Michael T. & Piger, Jeremy & Wall, Howard J., 2013. "Discordant city employment cycles," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 367-384.
    6. Julie L. Hotchkiss & Robert E. Moore, 2018. "Some Like It Hot: Assessing Longer-Term Labor Market Benefits from a High-Pressure Economy," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2018-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    7. Jeffrey Thompson & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Recent Trends in the Distribution of Income: Labor, Wealth and More Complete Measures of Well Being," Working Papers wp225, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    8. Wilkinson, Lindsay R. & Schafer, Markus H. & Wilkinson, Renae, 2020. "How painful is a recession? An assessment of two future-oriented buffering mechanisms," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 255(C).
    9. Untaru, Elena-Nicoleta & Han, Heesup, 2021. "Protective measures against COVID-19 and the business strategies of the retail enterprises: Differences in gender, age, education, and income among shoppers," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    10. Aysegul Sahin & Jonathan L. Willis, 2011. "Employment patterns during the recovery: Who are getting the jobs and why?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 5-34.
    11. Latif, Ehsan, 2014. "The impact of recession on drinking and smoking behaviours in Canada," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 43-56.
    12. Wall, Howard J., 2013. "The employment cycles of neighboring cities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 177-185.
    13. Kaswengi, Joseph & Diallo, Mbaye Fall, 2015. "Consumer choice of store brands across store formats: A panel data analysis under crisis periods," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 70-76.
    14. Bharadwaj, Prashant & Bietenbeck, Jan & Lundborg, Petter & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2019. "Birth weight and vulnerability to a macroeconomic crisis," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 136-144.

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    Keywords

    Recessions; Demography;

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