IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/tefoso/v80y2013i8p1484-1498.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Proximity, networking and knowledge production in Europe: What lessons for innovation policy?

Author

Listed:
  • Marrocu, Emanuela
  • Paci, Raffaele
  • Usai, Stefano

Abstract

This paper aims at investigating the role of different types of proximity on the technological activity of a region within the context of a knowledge production function, where R&D expenditure and human capital are the main internal inputs. We thus assess to what extent the creation of new ideas in a certain region is enhanced by knowledge flows coming from proximate regions. In particular, we examine in detail different kinds of proximity by combining the usual geographical dimension with the institutional, technological, social and organizational proximity. The analysis is implemented for an ample dataset referring to 276 regions in 29 European countries (EU27 plus Norway, Switzerland) over the last decade. Results show that human capital and R&D are clearly essential for innovative activity with the former being much more effective in driving the production of knowledge. As for the proximity and network effects, we find that technological proximity outperforms the geographic one, whilst a limited role is played by social and organizational networks. As a result, the first policy message is that European regions still need to focus on policies aimed at increasing the endowments of well-educated labour force and therefore their knowledge base. Furthermore, we need innovation policies based on each region's specific innovation potential, due to the existing differences in geographical, cognitive, institutional, social and organizational structures and networks.

Suggested Citation

  • Marrocu, Emanuela & Paci, Raffaele & Usai, Stefano, 2013. "Proximity, networking and knowledge production in Europe: What lessons for innovation policy?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 80(8), pages 1484-1498.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:tefoso:v:80:y:2013:i:8:p:1484-1498
    DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.03.004
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162513000528
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lydia Greunz, 2003. "Geographically and technologically mediated knowledge spillovers between European regions," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 37(4), pages 657-680, December.
    2. Stephen Gibbons & Henry G. Overman, 2012. "Mostly Pointless Spatial Econometrics?," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 172-191, May.
    3. Christ, Julian P., 2009. "New Economic Geography reloaded: Localized knowledge spillovers and the geography of innovation," FZID Discussion Papers 01-2009, University of Hohenheim, Center for Research on Innovation and Services (FZID).
    4. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    5. Mario Maggioni & Teodora Erika Uberti & Stefano Usai, 2011. "Treating Patents as Relational Data: Knowledge Transfers and Spillovers across Italian Provinces," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 39-67.
    6. Criscuolo, Chiara & Martin, Ralf & Overman, Henry & Van Reenen, John, 2012. "The Causal Effects of an Industrial Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 6323, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Roderik Ponds & Frank van Oort & Koen Frenken, 2010. "Innovation, spillovers and university--industry collaboration: an extended knowledge production function approach," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 231-255, March.
    8. Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
    9. Coe, David T. & Helpman, Elhanan, 1995. "International R&D spillovers," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 859-887, May.
    10. Florax, Raymond J. G. M. & Folmer, Hendrik & Rey, Sergio J., 2003. "Specification searches in spatial econometrics: the relevance of Hendry's methodology," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 557-579, September.
    11. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1990. "Trade, Innovation, and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 86-91, May.
    12. Luisa Corrado & Bernard Fingleton, 2012. "Where Is The Economics In Spatial Econometrics?," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 210-239, May.
    13. Rosina Moreno & Raffaele Paci & Stefano Usai, 2005. "Spatial spillovers and innovation activity in European regions," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 37(10), pages 1793-1812, October.
    14. Colombelli, Alessandra & Krafft, Jackie & Quatraro, Francesco, 2013. "Properties of knowledge base and firm survival: Evidence from a sample of French manufacturing firms," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 80(8), pages 1469-1483.
    15. Cowan, Robin & Jonard, Nicolas, 2004. "Network structure and the diffusion of knowledge," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1557-1575, June.
    16. Kroll, Henning, 2009. "Spillovers and proximity in perspective: a network approach to improving the operationalisation of proximity," Working Papers "Firms and Region" R2/2009, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI).
    17. Jarno Hoekman & Koen Frenken & Frank Oort, 2009. "The geography of collaborative knowledge production in Europe," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(3), pages 721-738, September.
    18. Chiara Criscuolo & Ralf Martin & Henry G. Overman & John Van Reenen, 2012. "Some Causal Effects of an Industrial Policy," CEP Discussion Papers dp1113, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    19. Borrás, Susana & Edquist, Charles, 2013. "The choice of innovation policy instruments," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 80(8), pages 1513-1522.
    20. Christophe Carrincazeaux & Marie Coris, 2011. "Proximity and Innovation," Chapters,in: Handbook of Regional Innovation and Growth, chapter 20 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    21. Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1996. "R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 630-640, June.
    22. Riccardo Crescenzi & Andrés Rodriguez-Pose & Michael Storper, 2007. "The territorial dynamics of innovation: a Europe-United States comparative analysis," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(6), pages 673-709, November.
    23. Anselin, Luc & Varga, Attila & Acs, Zoltan, 1997. "Local Geographic Spillovers between University Research and High Technology Innovations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 422-448, November.
    24. Jaffe, Adam B, 1989. "Real Effects of Academic Research," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 957-970, December.
    25. Tappeiner, Gottfried & Hauser, Christoph & Walde, Janette, 2008. "Regional knowledge spillovers: Fact or artifact?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 861-874, June.
    26. Buesa, Mikel & Heijs, Joost & Baumert, Thomas, 2010. "The determinants of regional innovation in Europe: A combined factorial and regression knowledge production function approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 722-735, July.
    27. Raffaele Paci & Emanuela Marrocu & Stefano Usai, 2014. "The Complementary Effects of Proximity Dimensions on Knowledge Spillovers," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 9-30, March.
    28. Cristiano Antonelli & Pier Paolo Patrucco & Francesco Quatraro, 2008. "The governance of localized knowledge externalities," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 479-498.
    29. Barbara Dettori & Emanuela Marrocu & Raffaele Paci, 2012. "Total Factor Productivity, Intangible Assets and Spatial Dependence in the European Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(10), pages 1401-1416, November.
    30. Bottazzi, Laura & Peri, Giovanni, 2003. "Innovation and spillovers in regions: Evidence from European patent data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 687-710, August.
    31. Simona Iammarino, 2005. "An evolutionary integrated view of Regional Systems of Innovation: Concepts, measures and historical perspectives," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 497-519, June.
    32. Daniele Archibugi & Andrea Filippetti, 2011. "Is the Economic Crisis Impairing Convergence in Innovation Performance across Europe?," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(6), pages 1153-1182, November.
    33. Bjørn Asheim & Ron Boschma & Philip Cooke, 2011. "Constructing Regional Advantage: Platform Policies Based on Related Variety and Differentiated Knowledge Bases," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(7), pages 893-904.
    34. Picci, Lucio, 2010. "The internationalization of inventive activity: A gravity model using patent data," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1070-1081, October.
    35. Andres Rodriguez-Pose & Riccardo regstdcenzi, 2008. "Research and Development, Spillovers, Innovation Systems, and the Genesis of Regional Growth in Europe," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(1), pages 51-67.
    36. Raffaele Paci & Stefano Usai, 2009. "Knowledge flows across European regions," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(3), pages 669-690, September.
    37. Ron Boschma & Koen Frenken, 2010. "The Spatial Evolution of Innovation Networks: A Proximity Perspective," Chapters,in: The Handbook of Evolutionary Economic Geography, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    38. Stefano Usai, 2011. "The Geography of Inventive Activity in OECD Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 711-731.
    39. Thomas Doring & Jan Schnellenbach, 2006. "What do we know about geographical knowledge spillovers and regional growth?: A survey of the literature," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(3), pages 375-395.
    40. Tom Broekel & Ron Boschma, 2012. "Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: the proximity paradox," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(2), pages 409-433, March.
    41. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Issues in Assessing the Contribution of Research and Development to Productivity Growth," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 17-45 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    42. Meric S. Gertler, 2003. "Tacit knowledge and the economic geography of context, or The undefinable tacitness of being (there)," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(1), pages 75-99, January.
    43. Leon Oerlemans & Marius Meeus, 2005. "Do Organizational and Spatial Proximity Impact on Firm Performance?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 89-104.
    44. Andr Torre Shaw & Jean-Pierre Gilly, 2000. "On the Analytical Dimension of Proximity Dynamics," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 169-180.
    45. Olav Sorenson & Jan W. Rivkin & Lee Fleming, 2010. "Complexity, Networks and Knowledge Flows," Chapters,in: The Handbook of Evolutionary Economic Geography, chapter 15 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    46. Luc Anselin, 2010. "Thirty years of spatial econometrics," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(1), pages 3-25, March.
    47. Lobo, José & Strumsky, Deborah, 2008. "Metropolitan patenting, inventor agglomeration and social networks: A tale of two effects," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 871-884, May.
    48. Mario A. Maggioni & Mario Nosvelli & Teodora Erika Uberti, 2007. "Space versus networks in the geography of innovation: A European analysis," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(3), pages 471-493, August.
    49. J. Elhorst, 2010. "Applied Spatial Econometrics: Raising the Bar," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 9-28.
    50. Borrás, Susana & Edquist, Charles, 2013. "The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments," Papers in Innovation Studies 2013/4, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    51. Manuel Acosta & Daniel Coronado & M. Dolores Leon & M. Angeles Martinez, 2009. "Production of University Technological Knowledge in European Regions: Evidence from Patent Data," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(9), pages 1167-1181.
    52. Ron Boschma, 2005. "Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 61-74.
    53. Acs, Zoltan J. & Anselin, Luc & Varga, Attila, 2002. "Patents and innovation counts as measures of regional production of new knowledge," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1069-1085, September.
    54. Todtling, Franz & Trippl, Michaela, 2005. "One size fits all?: Towards a differentiated regional innovation policy approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1203-1219, October.
    55. Olivier Parent & James P. LeSage, 2012. "Determinants Of Knowledge Production And Their Effects On Regional Economic Growth," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 256-284, May.
    56. Grossman, Gene M. & Helpman, Elhanan, 1990. "Trade, Innovation, and Growth," Foerder Institute for Economic Research Working Papers 275478, Tel-Aviv University > Foerder Institute for Economic Research.
    57. Breandán Ó hUallacháin & Timothy F. Leslie, 2007. "Rethinking the regional knowledge production function," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(6), pages 737-752, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Manuel Acosta & Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro & Daniel Coronado, 2016. "Access to Universities' Public Knowledge: Who is More Regionalist?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(3), pages 446-459, March.
    2. repec:eee:tefoso:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:125-136 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. De Noni, Ivan & Ganzaroli, Andrea & Orsi, Luigi, 2017. "The impact of intra- and inter-regional knowledge collaboration and technological variety on the knowledge productivity of European regions," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 108-118.
    4. Rune Dahl Fitjar & Franz Huber & Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, 2016. "Not too close, not too far: testing the Goldilocks principle of ‘optimal’ distance in innovation networks," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(6), pages 465-487, August.
    5. Fuhrmeister, Clemens & Titze, Mirko & Blum, Ulrich & Marek, Philipp, 2014. "Does Proximity Matter in the Choice of Partners in Collaborative R&D Projects? – An Empirical Analysis of Granted Projects in Germany," IWH Discussion Papers 12/2014, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    6. repec:eee:ecolet:v:162:y:2018:i:c:p:81-85 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Dungey, Mardi & Volkov, Vladimir, 2018. "R&D and wholesale trade are critical to the economy: Identifying dominant sectors from economic networks," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 81-85.
    8. Villani, Elisa & Rasmussen, Einar & Grimaldi, Rosa, 2017. "How intermediary organizations facilitate university–industry technology transfer: A proximity approach," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 86-102.
    9. Colombelli, Alessandra & Krafft, Jackie & Quatraro, Francesco, 2013. "Properties of knowledge base and firm survival: Evidence from a sample of French manufacturing firms," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 80(8), pages 1469-1483.
    10. José Daniel Buendía Azorín & María del Mar Sánchez de la Vega, 2015. "Human capital effects on labour productivity in EU regions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(45), pages 4814-4828, September.
    11. repec:eee:tefoso:v:122:y:2017:i:c:p:139-150 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Di Cagno, Daniela & Fabrizi, Andrea & Meliciani, Valentina & Wanzenböck, Iris, 2016. "The impact of relational spillovers from joint research projects on knowledge creation across European regions," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 83-94.
    13. repec:eee:tefoso:v:129:y:2018:i:c:p:43-55 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:eee:tefoso:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:299-308 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. repec:eee:respol:v:47:y:2018:i:1:p:1-13 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. repec:eee:tefoso:v:131:y:2018:i:c:p:276-285 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Technological production; Proximity; Networks; Human capital;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:tefoso:v:80:y:2013:i:8:p:1484-1498. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401625 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.