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Mortgage debt and entrepreneurship

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  • Bracke, Philippe
  • Hilber, Christian A.L.
  • Silva, Olmo

Abstract

We study the link between mortgage debt and entrepreneurship using a model of occupational choice and housing tenure in a setting where loans are recourse—like in the UK and several US states. Our model shows that as long as the mortgage interest rate exceeds the risk-free rate: (i) mortgage debt diminishes the likelihood of entrepreneurship by amplifying risk aversion; and (ii) the negative relation between mortgage debt and entrepreneurship increases with income volatility. Our model also shows that the link between housing equity and entrepreneurship is ambiguously signed because of competing portfolio and wealth effects. We use the British Household Panel Survey to test and confirm the model predictions, and deal with unobservable heterogeneity employing three research designs—individual fixed effects, housing-spell fixed effects, and instrumental variables. A one standard deviation increase in leverage reduces the probability of entrepreneurship by 10–20 percent.

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  • Bracke, Philippe & Hilber, Christian A.L. & Silva, Olmo, 2018. "Mortgage debt and entrepreneurship," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 52-66.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:103:y:2018:i:c:p:52-66
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jue.2017.10.003
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    Cited by:

    1. Bracke, Philippe & Hilber, Christian A.L. & Silva, Olmo, 2018. "Mortgage debt and entrepreneurship," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 52-66.
    2. Saleem Bahaj & Angus Foulis & Gabor Pinter, 2020. "Home Values and Firm Behavior," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 110(7), pages 2225-2270, July.
    3. Thais Laerkholm Jensen & Søren Leth-Petersen & Ramana Nanda, 2014. "Financing Constraints, Home Equity and Selection into Entrepreneurship," Harvard Business School Working Papers 15-020, Harvard Business School, revised May 2021.
    4. Han, Bing & Han, Lu & Zhou, Zhengyi, 2020. "Housing Market and Entrepreneurship: Micro Evidence from China," MPRA Paper 102597, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Aug 2020.
    5. Benedikt Vogt & Wolter Hassink & Matteo Millone & Remco Mocking, 2021. "Homeowners have easier and cheaper access to business credit," CPB Discussion Paper 420, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    6. Saleem Bahaj & Angus Foulis & Gabor Pinter, 2016. "The Residential Collateral Channel," Discussion Papers 1607, Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM), revised Jun 2016.
    7. Hassink, Wolter & Millone, Matteo & Mocking, Remco & Vogt, Benedikt, 2021. "Home Ownership and Home Equity Promote Entrepreneurial Activity," IZA Discussion Papers 14170, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Szumilo, Nikodem & Vanino, Enrico, 2021. "Mortgage affordability and entrepreneurship: Evidence from spatial discontinuity in Help-to-Buy equity loans," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 36(4).
    9. Walther Reina Gutiérrez & Claudia Inés Sepúlveda Rivillas & Gabriel Jaime González Uribe, 2017. "Análisis semiparametrico de los factores asociados a la sostenibilidad de los emprendimientos," Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, vol. 26(1), pages 163-180, December.
    10. Gabriel M. Ahlfeldt & Wolfgang Maennig, 2019. "Gewinner und Verlierer von Stadtentwicklung: Ein Plädoyer für mehr Wohneigentum [Winners and losers of urban development: A plea for more home ownership]," Zeitschrift für Immobilienökonomie (German Journal of Real Estate Research), Springer;Gesellschaft für Immobilienwirtschaftliche Forschung e. V., vol. 5(1), pages 111-130, November.
    11. Benedikt Vogt, 2021. "Homeowners have easier and cheaper access to business credit," CPB Discussion Paper 420.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Mortgage debt; Leverage; Risk aversion;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand

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