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Housing Collateral and Entrepreneurship

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  • Thesmar , David

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  • Sraer , David

    ()

Abstract

This paper shows that collateral constraints restrict firm entry and post-entry growth, even in the long-run. The authors' empirical strategy uses French administrative data and exploits cross-sectional variation in local house-price appreciation as shocks to the value of collateral available to homeowners. They control for local demand shocks by comparing homeowners to two control groups that live in the same region but do not experience collateral shocks: (i) renters and (ii) homeowners with a mortgage outstanding, who -- in France -- cannot take out a second mortgage on their house. In both comparisons, the authors find that an increase in collateral value leads to a higher probability of becoming an entrepreneur. Conditional on entry, entrepreneurs with access to more valuable collateral start larger firms, use more debt, and create more value added, for at least six years after creation.

Suggested Citation

  • Thesmar , David & Sraer , David, 2014. "Housing Collateral and Entrepreneurship," Les Cahiers de Recherche 1077, HEC Paris.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebg:heccah:1077
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1986. "Agency costs, collateral, and business fluctuations," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    2. Erik Hurst & Benjamin Wild Pugsley, 2011. "What Do Small Businesses Do?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 42(2 (Fall)), pages 73-142.
    3. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Joulfaian, David & Rosen, Harvey S, 1994. "Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(1), pages 53-75, February.
    4. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
    5. repec:fth:prinin:319 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Benjamin Moll, 2014. "Productivity Losses from Financial Frictions: Can Self-Financing Undo Capital Misallocation?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(10), pages 3186-3221, October.
    7. Steffen Andersen & Kasper Meisner Nielsen, 2012. "Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship? Evidence from Survival Rates in a Natural Experiment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(12), pages 3684-3710.
    8. Gan, Jie, 2007. "Collateral, debt capacity, and corporate investment: Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 709-734, September.
    9. Augustin Landier & David Thesmar, 2009. "Financial Contracting with Optimistic Entrepreneurs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 117-150, January.
    10. Adelino, Manuel & Schoar, Antoinette & Severino, Felipe, 2015. "House prices, collateral, and self-employment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 288-306.
    11. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
    12. Black, Jane & de Meza, David & Jeffreys, David, 1996. "House Price, the Supply of Collateral and the Enterprise Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(434), pages 60-75, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Johan Hombert & Antoinette Schoar & David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2016. "Does Unemployment Insurance Change the Selection into Entrepreneurship?," NBER Chapters,in: Measuring Entrepreneurial Businesses: Current Knowledge and Challenges, pages 351-369 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Florian LEON, 2018. "Long-Term Finance and Entrepreneurship," CREA Discussion Paper Series 18-01, Center for Research in Economic Analysis, University of Luxembourg.
    3. Laerkholm Jensen, Thais & Leth-Petersen, Søren & Nanda, Ramana, 2014. "Housing Collateral, Credit Constraints and Entrepreneurship - Evidence from a Mortgage Reform," CEPR Discussion Papers 10260, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Manuel Adelino & Song Ma & David T. Robinson, 2014. "Firm Age, Investment Opportunities, and Job Creation," NBER Working Papers 19845, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Michael S. Dahl & Mirjam van Praag & Peter Thompson, 2014. "Entrepreneurial Couples," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-055/V, Tinbergen Institute.
    6. Adelino, Manuel & Schoar, Antoinette & Severino, Felipe, 2015. "House prices, collateral, and self-employment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 288-306.
    7. Hombert, Johan & Schoar, Antoinette S & Sraer, David & Thesmar, David, 2014. "Can Unemployment Insurance Spur Entrepreneurial Activity?," CEPR Discussion Papers 10294, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2015. "House Money and Entrepreneurship," Harvard Business School Working Papers 15-069, Harvard Business School.
    9. Ramana Nanda, 2016. "Financing high-potential entrepreneurship," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 252-252, April.
    10. Dmitriy Sergeyev & Neil Mehrotra, 2015. "Financial Shocks and Job Flows," 2015 Meeting Papers 520, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    11. Hamed Ghiaie, 2018. "Shadow Bank run: The Story of a Recession," THEMA Working Papers 2018-01, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    12. Arthur B. Kennickell & Myron L. Kwast & Jonathan Pogach, 2016. "Small Businesses and Small Business Finance during the Financial Crisis and the Great Recession: New Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances," NBER Chapters,in: Measuring Entrepreneurial Businesses: Current Knowledge and Challenges, pages 291-349 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Thais Laerkholm Jensen & Søren Leth-Petersen & Ramana Nanda, 2014. "Home Equity Finance and Entrepreneurial Performance - Evidence from a Mortgage Reform," Harvard Business School Working Papers 15-020, Harvard Business School, revised Sep 2015.
    14. Kennickell, Arthur B. & Kwast, Myron L. & Pogach, Jonathan, 2015. "Small Businesses and Small Business Finance during the Financial Crisis and the Great Recession: New Evidence From the Survey of Consumer Finances," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-39, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    15. Remco Mocking & Benedikt Vogt & Wolter Hassink, 2017. "Collateral Damage? Decreasing House Prices and Entrepreneurial Lending," CPB Discussion Paper 351, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Collateral; Entrepreneurship; Real estate;

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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