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Employment effects of unconventional monetary policy: Evidence from QE

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  • Luck, Stephan
  • Zimmermann, Tom

Abstract

This paper investigates employment effects of the Federal Reserve’s quantitative easing policies (QE) via a bank lending channel. We find that banks with higher mortgage-backed securities holdings refinanced relatively more mortgages after the first round of QE, which increased local consumption and employment in the nontradable goods sector. In contrast, banks increased lending to firms and home purchase mortgage origination after the third round of QE, which led to a sizable increase in overall employment. Our findings are supported by new confidential loan-level data that show firms with stronger ties to affected banks increased employment and capital investment more during QE3.

Suggested Citation

  • Luck, Stephan & Zimmermann, Tom, 2020. "Employment effects of unconventional monetary policy: Evidence from QE," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(3), pages 678-703.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:135:y:2020:i:3:p:678-703
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2019.07.004
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    3. Sclip, Alex & Girardone, Claudia & Beltrame, Federico & Paltrinieri, Andrea, 2021. "Bank risks and lending outcomes: Evidence from QE," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 118(C).
    4. Viral V Acharya & Ryan Niladri & Matteo Crosignani & Tim Eisert & Renée Spigt, 2022. "Exorbitant privilege? Quantitative easing and the bond market subsidy of prospective fallen angels," BIS Working Papers 1002, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Cahn, Christophe & Duquerroy, Anne & Mullins, William, 2017. "Unconventional Monetary Policy and Bank Lending Relationships," SocArXiv vgk25, Center for Open Science.
    6. Yannis Dafermos, 2021. "Climate change, central banking and financial supervision: beyond the risk exposure approach," Working Papers 243, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK.
    7. Jasova, Martina & Mendicino, Caterina & Supera, Dominik, 2021. "Policy uncertainty, lender of last resort and the real economy," Working Paper Series 2521, European Central Bank.
    8. Galindo Gil, Hamilton, 2021. "What kind of firm is more responsive to the unconventional monetary policy?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 188-200.
    9. Rhys Bidder & John Krainer & Adam Shapiro, 2021. "De-leveraging or de-risking? How banks cope with loss," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 39, pages 100-127, January.
    10. Johannes F. Wieland & Mu‐Jeung Yang, 2020. "Financial Dampening," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(1), pages 79-113, February.
    11. António Afonso & Francisco Gomes Pereira, 2022. "Unconventional Monetary Policy in the Euro Area. Impacts on Loans, Employment, and Investment," CESifo Working Paper Series 9610, CESifo.
    12. Christian Bittner & Alexander Rodnyansky & Farzad Saidi & Yannick Timmer, 2021. "Mixing QE and Interest Rate Policies at the Effective Lower Bound: Micro Evidence from the Euro Area," CESifo Working Paper Series 9363, CESifo.
    13. Gil Nogueira & Luísa Farinha & Laura Blattner, 2021. "Not All Shocks Are Created Equal: Assessing Heterogeneity in the Bank Lending Channel," Working Papers w202120, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    14. Rhys Bidder & John Krainer & Adam Shapiro, 2021. "De-leveraging or de-risking? How banks cope with loss," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 39, pages 100-127, January.
    15. Cumming, Fergus, 2022. "Mortgage cash-flows and employment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
    16. Cumming, Fergus, 2018. "Mortgages, cash-flow shocks and local employment," Bank of England working papers 773, Bank of England.
    17. Ozan Güler & Mike Mariathasan & Klaas Mulier & Nejat G. Okatan, 2021. "The real effects of banks' corporate credit supply: A literature review," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 59(3), pages 1252-1285, July.
    18. Martina Jasova & Caterina Mendicino & Dominik Supera, 2018. "Rollover Risk and Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from Unconventional Central Bank Liquidity," 2018 Meeting Papers 500, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    19. Goetz, Martin, 2019. "Financing conditions and toxic emissions," SAFE Working Paper Series 254, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE.
    20. Karlyn Mitchell & Douglas K. Pearce, 2020. "How Did Unconventional Monetary Policy Affect Economic Forecasts?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 206-220, January.
    21. Jasova, Martina & Mendicino, Caterina & Supera, Dominik, 2021. "Policy uncertainty, lender of last resort and the real economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 381-398.
    22. Kenneth N. Kuttner, 2018. "Outside the Box: Unconventional Monetary Policy in the Great Recession and Beyond," Department of Economics Working Papers 2018-04, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    23. Spokeviciute, Laima & Keasey, Kevin & Vallascas, Francesco, 2019. "Do financial crises cleanse the banking industry? Evidence from US commercial bank exits," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 222-236.
    24. Andrew F. Haughwout & Benjamin Hyman & Or Shachar, 2021. "The Option Value of Municipal Liquidity: Evidence from Federal Lending Cutoffs during COVID-19," Staff Reports 988, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    25. Arikan, Cengiz & Yalcin, Yeliz, 2017. "Do The Countries’ Monetary Policies Have Spatial Impact?," MPRA Paper 83407, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank lending channel; Quantitative easing;

    JEL classification:

    • D25 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Intertemporal Firm Choice: Investment, Capacity, and Financing
    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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