IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v96y2016icp36-44.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Energy consumption, political regime and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Adams, Samuel
  • Klobodu, Edem Kwame Mensah
  • Opoku, Eric Evans Osei

Abstract

In this paper, we examine the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, and how democracy moderates this relationship using panel data of 16 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries for the period 1971–2013. Employing a panel vector autoregressive model (PVAR) in a generalized method of moments (GMM) framework, the findings support the feedback hypothesis for energy consumption and growth. Second, the interaction variable (energy consumption and democracy) is positively and significantly related to economic growth, supporting the view that democracy moderates the energy consumption and growth nexus. Further, the results provide strong evidence of a uni-directional relationship from trade openness to energy consumption. Additionally, impulse responses and variance decompositions also confirm positive feedback relationships between energy consumption and economic growth, energy prices and economic growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Adams, Samuel & Klobodu, Edem Kwame Mensah & Opoku, Eric Evans Osei, 2016. "Energy consumption, political regime and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 36-44.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:96:y:2016:i:c:p:36-44
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.05.029
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516302580
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Flachaire, Emmanuel & García-Peñalosa, Cecilia & Konte, Maty, 2014. "Political versus economic institutions in the growth process," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 212-229.
    2. Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth: The experience of African countries revisited," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 217-224.
    3. Timothy Moss, 2014. "Socio-technical Change and the Politics of Urban Infrastructure: Managing Energy in Berlin between Dictatorship and Democracy," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 51(7), pages 1432-1448, May.
    4. Michael T. Toman & Barbora Jemelkova, 2003. "Energy and Economic Development: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 93-112.
    5. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116.
    6. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Khan, Saleheen & Tahir, Mohammad Iqbal, 2013. "The dynamic links between energy consumption, economic growth, financial development and trade in China: Fresh evidence from multivariate framework analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 8-21.
    7. Chor Tang & Bee Tan, 2014. "The linkages among energy consumption, economic growth, relative price, foreign direct investment, and financial development in Malaysia," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 781-797, March.
    8. Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "A literature survey on energy-growth nexus," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 340-349, January.
    9. Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2006. "Electricity consumption and economic growth: a time series experience for 17 African countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1106-1114, July.
    10. Ozturk, Ilhan & Aslan, Alper & Kalyoncu, Huseyin, 2010. "Energy consumption and economic growth relationship: Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4422-4428, August.
    11. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Central America: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-216.
    12. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2001. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1369-1401, December.
    13. Karanfil, Fatih & Li, Yuanjing, 2015. "Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 264-277.
    14. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3282-3286, August.
    15. David I. Stern & Cutler J. Cleveland, 2004. "Energy and Economic Growth," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0410, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
    16. Belke, Ansgar & Dobnik, Frauke & Dreger, Christian, 2011. "Energy consumption and economic growth: New insights into the cointegration relationship," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 782-789, September.
    17. Kahsai, Mulugeta S. & Nondo, Chali & Schaeffer, Peter V. & Gebremedhin, Tesfa G., 2012. "Income level and the energy consumption–GDP nexus: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 739-746.
    18. Ebohon, Obas John, 1996. "Energy, economic growth and causality in developing countries : A case study of Tanzania and Nigeria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 447-453, May.
    19. Eggoh, Jude C. & Bangake, Chrysost & Rault, Christophe, 2011. "Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7408-7421.
    20. Góes, Carlos, 2016. "Institutions and growth: A GMM/IV Panel VAR approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 85-91.
    21. Sudeshna Ghosh Banerjee & Michael C. Munger, 2004. "Move to markets? An empirical analysis of privatization in developing countries," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(2), pages 213-240.
    22. Nawaz, Saima, 2015. "Growth effects of institutions: A disaggregated analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 118-126.
    23. Adam Przeworski & Fernando Limongi, 1993. "Political Regimes and Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 51-69, Summer.
    24. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    25. Daniel Sakyi & Samuel Adams, 2012. "Democracy, Government Spending and Economic Growth: The Case of Ghana, 1960–2008," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 6(3), pages 361-383, August.
    26. Jumbe, Charles B. L., 2004. "Cointegration and causality between electricity consumption and GDP: empirical evidence from Malawi," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 61-68, January.
    27. van Beers, Cees & Strand, Jon, 2013. "Political determinants of fossil fuel pricing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6470, The World Bank.
    28. Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2000. "The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 615-625, December.
    29. Adams, Samuel & Opoku, Eric Evans Osei, 2015. "Foreign direct investment, regulations and growth in sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 48-56.
    30. Kaouthar Gazdar & Mondher Cherif, 2015. "Institutions and the financeegrowth nexus: Empirical evidence from MENA countries," Borsa Istanbul Review, Research and Business Development Department, Borsa Istanbul, vol. 15(3), pages 137-160, September.
    31. Akinlo, A.E., 2008. "Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from 11 Sub-Sahara African countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2391-2400, September.
    32. Omri, Anis & Kahouli, Bassem, 2014. "Causal relationships between energy consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth: Fresh evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equations models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 913-922.
    33. ., 2006. "Agriculture and Economic Growth," Chapters,in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    34. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    35. Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1374-1382, November.
    36. Tang, Chor Foon & Abosedra, Salah, 2014. "The impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth in the MENA countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 458-464.
    37. Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2010. "Energy consumption, prices and economic growth in three SSA countries: A comparative study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2463-2469, May.
    38. Globerman, Steven & Shapiro, Daniel, 2002. "Global Foreign Direct Investment Flows: The Role of Governance Infrastructure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 1899-1919, November.
    39. Andrews, Donald W. K. & Lu, Biao, 2001. "Consistent model and moment selection procedures for GMM estimation with application to dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 123-164, March.
    40. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan & Ewing, Bradley T., 2007. "Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 482-489, May.
    41. ., 2006. "Military Expenditure and Economic Growth," Chapters,in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 77 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    42. ., 2006. "Uneconomic Growth," Chapters,in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 127 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    43. Hisamoglu, Ebru, 2014. "EU membership, institutions and growth: The case of Turkey," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 211-219.
    44. Squalli, Jay, 2007. "Electricity consumption and economic growth: Bounds and causality analyses of OPEC members," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1192-1205, November.
    45. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    46. ., 2006. "Human Development and Economic Growth," Chapters,in: The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, chapter 51 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    47. Vishal Jaunky, 2013. "Democracy and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: a panel data approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 987-1008, October.
    48. Yu, Eden S. H. & Jin, Jang C., 1992. "Cointegration tests of energy consumption, income, and employment," Resources and Energy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 259-266, September.
    49. Turkson, John & Wohlgemuth, Norbert, 2001. "Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 135-145, January.
    50. repec:zbw:rwirep:0190 is not listed on IDEAS
    51. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan, 2007. "The relationship between energy and production: Evidence from Turkish manufacturing industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1151-1165, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eco:journ2:2017-03-25 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:ris:apltrx:0318 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Bakari, Sayef, 2017. "The Three-Way Linkages between Export, Import and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Tunisia," MPRA Paper 81080, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. repec:eee:rensus:v:76:y:2017:i:c:p:62-71 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Afees A. Salisu & Ahamuefula Ephraim Ogbonna, 2017. "Forecasting GDP with energy series: ADL-MIDAS vs. Linear Time Series Models," Working Papers 035, Centre for Econometric and Allied Research, University of Ibadan.
    6. repec:eee:energy:v:143:y:2018:i:c:p:732-745 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Energy consumption; Economic growth; Democracy; Sub-Saharan Africa; Panel autoregressive model; C23; O44; O55; P48; Q43;

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • O44 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • P48 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:96:y:2016:i:c:p:36-44. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.