The effect of ESCOs on energy use
Energy saving can importantly help prevent greenhouse gas emissions and, thus, climate change. Energy service companies (ESCOs) provide a crucial instrument for delivering improved energy efficiency and potentially contributing to substantial energy savings in the public and private sectors. This paper investigates empirically the effect of ESCO activities on energy use. Based on a dynamic IPAT model, using a panel data of 94 countries over the period 1981 to 2007, we provide significant evidence that ESCOs reduce energy use. This finding proves robust to different dates of the first ESCO. The negative ESCO effect increases over time. The dynamic adjustment process produces small effects in the short run, but large effects in the long run. Moreover, the long-run ESCO effect differs across the stages of development. That is, for the high- and low-income countries, the short-run ESCO effect remains negative, but the long-run effects differ, remaining negative in high-income countries, but becoming positive in low-income countries. Finally, we discuss energy policy implications.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vine, Edward L. & Murakoshi, Chiharu & Nakagami, Hidetoshi, 1998. "International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 439-447.
- Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995.
"Economic Growth and the Environment,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
- Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, 2008.
"The Impact of Urbanization on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Developing Countries,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
2377, CESifo Group Munich.
- Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Maruotti, Antonello, 2011. "The impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions: Evidence from developing countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(7), pages 1344-1353, May.
- Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, 2008. "The Impact of Urbanization on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Developing Countries," Working Papers 2008.50, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- David Roodman, 2006.
"How to Do xtabond2: An Introduction to "Difference" and "System" GMM in Stata,"
103, Center for Global Development.
- David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998.
"Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Xavier Labandeira Villot & Pedro Linares, 2009.
"Energy Efficiency: Economics and Policy,"
- Liu, Yaobin, 2009. "Exploring the relationship between urbanization and energy consumption in China using ARDL (autoregressive distributed lag) and FDM (factor decomposition model)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 1846-1854.
- Bertoldi, Paolo & Rezessy, Silvia & Vine, Edward, 2006. "Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1818-1832, September.
- York, Richard & Rosa, Eugene A. & Dietz, Thomas, 2003. "STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 351-365, October.
- Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995.
"Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Stern, David I., 2004.
"The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve,"
Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
- David I. Stern, 2003. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0302, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- M Arellano & O Bover, 1990.
"Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
- Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso & Aurelia Bengochea-Morancho & Rafael Morales-Lage, 2007.
"The impact of population on CO 2 emissions: evidence from European countries,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 38(4), pages 497-512, December.
- Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso & Aurelia Bengochea-Morancho & Rafael Morales-Lage, 2006. "The Impact of Population on CO2 Emissions: Evidence From European Countries," Working Papers 2006.98, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Kijima, Masaaki & Nishide, Katsumasa & Ohyama, Atsuyuki, 2010. "Economic models for the environmental Kuznets curve: A survey," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1187-1201, July.
- Luzzati, T. & Orsini, M., 2009. "Investigating the energy-environmental Kuznets curve," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 291-300.
- Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 656-660, January.
- Richard T. Carson, 2010. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Seeking Empirical Regularity and Theoretical Structure," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 4(1), pages 3-23, Winter.
- Rezessy, Silvia & Dimitrov, Konstantin & Urge-Vorsatz, Diana & Baruch, Seth, 2006. "Municipalities and energy efficiency in countries in transition: Review of factors that determine municipal involvement in the markets for energy services and energy efficient equipment, or how to aug," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 223-237, January.
- Sarkar, Ashok & Singh, Jas, 2010. "Financing energy efficiency in developing countries--lessons learned and remaining challenges," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5560-5571, October.
- Shi, Anqing, 2003. "The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975-1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 29-42, February.
- Brantley Liddle, 2003. "Demographic dynamics and per capita environmental impact: using panel regressions and household decompositions to examine population and transport," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2003-029, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Vine, Edward, 2005. "An international survey of the energy service company (ESCO) industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 691-704, March.
- Vasilis Sarafidis & Tom Wansbeek, 2012.
"Cross-Sectional Dependence in Panel Data Analysis,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(5), pages 483-531, September.
- Okay, Esin & Okay, Nesrin & Konukman, Alp Er S. & Akman, Ugur, 2008. "Views on Turkey's impending ESCO market: Is it promising?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1821-1825, June.
- Matthew A. Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors On Air Pollution," Labor and Demography 0312005, EconWPA, revised 13 May 2004.
- Caviglia-Harris, Jill L. & Chambers, Dustin & Kahn, James R., 2009. "Taking the "U" out of Kuznets: A comprehensive analysis of the EKC and environmental degradation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(4), pages 1149-1159, February.
- Brantley Liddle, 2011. "Consumption-Driven Environmental Impact and Age Structure Change in OECD Countries," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 24(30), pages 749-770, May.
- Goldman, Charles A. & Hopper, Nicole C. & Osborn, Julie G., 2005. "Review of US ESCO industry market trends: an empirical analysis of project data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 387-405, February.
- Oikonomou, V. & Becchis, F. & Steg, L. & Russolillo, D., 2009. "Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4787-4796, November.
- Chien-Chiang Lee & Yi-Bin Chiu & Chia-Hung Sun, 2009. "Does One Size Fit All? A Reexamination of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Using the Dynamic Panel Data Approach," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 31(4), pages 751-778, December.
- Mishra, Vinod & Smyth, Russell & Sharma, Susan, 2009. "The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 210-220, August.
- Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Selden, Thomas M., 1995.
"Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 85-101, May.
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Thomas M. Selden, 1992. "Stoking the Fires? Co2 Emissions and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 4248, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert P. Taylor & Chandrasekar Govindarajalu & Jeremy Levin & Anke S. Meyer & William A. Ward, 2008. "Financing Energy Efficiency : Lessons from Brazil, China, India, and Beyond," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6349.
- Pachauri, Shonali & Jiang, Leiwen, 2008. "The household energy transition in India and China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 4022-4035, November.
- Cole, M.A. & Rayner, A.J. & Bates, J.M., 1997. "The environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical analysis," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 401-416, November.
- Liddle, Brantley & Lung, Sidney, 2010. "Age-Structure, Urbanization, and Climate Change in Developed Countries: Revisiting STIRPAT for Disaggregated Population and Consumption-Related Environmental Impacts," MPRA Paper 59579, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Martin Gassebner & Michael J. Lamla & Jan-Egbert Sturm, 2011. "Determinants of pollution: what do we really know?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(3), pages 568-595, July.
- Okay, Nesrin & Akman, Ugur, 2010.
"Analysis of ESCO activities using country indicators,"
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 2760-2771, December.
- Okay, Nesrin & Akman, Ugur, 2009. "Analysis of ESCO Activities Using Country Indicators," MPRA Paper 17012, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jones, Donald W., 1991. "How urbanization affects energy-use in developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 621-630, September.
- Poumanyvong, Phetkeo & Kaneko, Shinji, 2010. "Does urbanization lead to less energy use and lower CO2 emissions? A cross-country analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 434-444, December.
- Amy K. Richmond & Robert K. Kaufmann, 2006. "Energy Prices and Turning Points: The Relationship between Income and Energy Use/Carbon Emissions," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 157-180.
- Marino, Angelica & Bertoldi, Paolo & Rezessy, Silvia & Boza-Kiss, Benigna, 2011. "A snapshot of the European energy service market in 2010 and policy recommendations to foster a further market development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6190-6198, October.
- Susmita Dasgupta & Benoit Laplante & Hua Wang & David Wheeler, 2002. "Confronting the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 147-168, Winter.
- Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
- Richard S. J. Tol, 2009. "The Economic Effects of Climate Change," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(2), pages 29-51, Spring.
- Sarafidis, Vasilis & Yamagata, Takashi & Robertson, Donald, 2009. "A test of cross section dependence for a linear dynamic panel model with regressors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 148(2), pages 149-161, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:51:y:2012:i:c:p:558-568. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.