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Time-varying income and price elasticities for energy demand: Evidence from a middle-income panel

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  • Liddle, Brantley
  • Smyth, Russell
  • Zhang, Xibin

Abstract

We estimate time-varying income and price elasticities for energy demand for a 26-country, middle-income balanced panel that spans 1996–2014. To do so, we employ a recently developed local linear dummy estimation method to estimate the trend and coefficient functions. We find that the price elasticity for energy demand is either insignificant or positive and small. While the income elasticity for energy demand behaves in a non-linear fashion over-time, it is always less than unity and is generally within 0.6–0.8. A GDP elasticity of less than one suggests that these middle-income countries are on the right-hand-side of an inverted-U energy intensity-GDP path that is consistent with the dematerialization process. Also, this finding suggests that energy intensity — but not energy consumption — in these countries will fall with economic growth. Hence, intensity-based targets may be met in a business-as-usual setting, but aggregate or per capita-based carbon emissions targets would likely require policy interventions.

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  • Liddle, Brantley & Smyth, Russell & Zhang, Xibin, 2020. "Time-varying income and price elasticities for energy demand: Evidence from a middle-income panel," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:86:y:2020:i:c:s0140988320300207
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2020.104681
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    Cited by:

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    3. Liddle, Brantley & Huntington, Hillard, 2020. "‘On the Road Again’: A 118 country panel analysis of gasoline and diesel demand," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 151-167.
    4. Gao, Jiti & Peng, Bin & Smyth, Russell, 2021. "On income and price elasticities for energy demand: A panel data study," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C).
    5. Eleyan, Mohammed I.Abu & Çatık, Abdurrahman Nazif & Balcılar, Mehmet & Ballı, Esra, 2021. "Are long-run income and price elasticities of oil demand time-varying? New evidence from BRICS countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 229(C).
    6. Liddle, Brantley & Huntington, Hillard, 2021. "There’s Technology Improvement, but is there Economy-wide Energy Leapfrogging? A Country Panel Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    7. Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa & Inekwe, John & Ivanovski, Kris, 2021. "R&D expenditure and energy consumption in OECD nations," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C).
    8. Liddle, Brantley & Huntington, Hillard, 2021. "How prices, income, and weather shape household electricity demand in high-income and middle-income countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Income elasticity; Price elasticity; Time-varying; Middle-income countries;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics

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