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Eggs versus chewable vitamins: Which intervention can increase nutrition and test scores in rural China?

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  • Kleiman-Weiner, Max
  • Luo, Renfu
  • Zhang, Linxiu
  • Shi, Yaojiang
  • Medina, Alexis
  • Rozelle, Scott

Abstract

Despite growing wealth and a strengthening commitment from the government to provide quality education, a significant share of students across rural China still have inadequate access to micronutrient-rich regular diets. Such poor diets can lead to nutritional problems, such as iron-deficiency anemia, that can adversely affect attention and learning in school. Large scale policies in Northwestern China have attempted to tackle these nutritional problems using eggs. The overall goal of this paper is to assess the impact of the government's egg distribution program by comparing the effect on anemia rates of an intervention that gives students an egg per day versus an intervention that gives students a chewable vitamin per day. We will also assess whether either intervention leads to improved educational performance among students in poor areas of rural China. To meet this goal, we report on the results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving over 2600 fourth grade students from 70 randomly-chosen elementary schools in 5 of the poorest counties in Gansu Province in China's poor Northwest region. The design called for random assignment of schools to one of two intervention groups, or a control group with no intervention. One intervention provided a daily chewable vitamin, including 5mg of iron. The other mimicked the government policy by providing a daily egg. According to the findings of the paper, in the schools that received the chewable vitamins, hemoglobin (Hb) levels rose by more than 2g/L (over 0.2 standard deviations). The standardized math test scores of students in these schools also improved significantly. In schools that received eggs, there was no significant effect on Hb levels or math test scores. Overall, these results should encourage China's Ministry of Education (MOE) to look beyond eggs when tackling nutritional problems related to anemia in an education setting.

Suggested Citation

  • Kleiman-Weiner, Max & Luo, Renfu & Zhang, Linxiu & Shi, Yaojiang & Medina, Alexis & Rozelle, Scott, 2013. "Eggs versus chewable vitamins: Which intervention can increase nutrition and test scores in rural China?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 165-176.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:chieco:v:24:y:2013:i:c:p:165-176 DOI: 10.1016/j.chieco.2012.12.005
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Xiaobing Wang & Chengfang Liu & Linxiu Zhang & Renfu Luo & Thomas Glauben & Yaojiang Shi & Scott Rozelle & Brian Sharbono, 2011. "What is keeping the poor out of college?: Enrollment rates, educational barriers and college matriculation in China," China Agricultural Economic Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 131-149, May.
    2. Renfu Luo & Yaojiang Shi & Linxiu Zhang & Chengfang Liu & Scott Rozelle & Brian Sharbono & Ai Yue & Qiran Zhao & Reynaldo Martorell, 2012. "Nutrition and Educational Performance in Rural China's Elementary Schools: Results of a Randomized Control Trial in Shaanxi Province," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(4), pages 735-772.
    3. Huang, Jikun & Wang, Xiaobing & Zhi, Huayong & Huang, Zhurong & Rozelle, Scott, 2011. "Subsidies and distortions in China’s agriculture: evidence from producer-level data," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 55(1), March.
    4. Gustavo J. Bobonis & Edward Miguel & Charu Puri-Sharma, 2006. "Anemia and School Participation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4).
    5. Wang, Xiaojun & Fleisher, Belton M. & Li, Haizheng & Li, Shi, 2007. "Access to Higher Education and Inequality: The Chinese Experiment," IZA Discussion Papers 2823, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Liu, Chengfang & Zhang, Linxiu & Luo, Renfu & Wang, Xiaobing & Rozelle, Scott & Sharbono, Brian & Adams, Jennifer & Shi, Yaojiang & Yue, Ai & Li, Hongbin & Glauben, Thomas, 2011. "Early commitment on financial aid and college decision making of poor students: Evidence from a randomized evaluation in rural China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 627-640, August.
    7. Linxiu Zhang & Renfu Luo & Chengfang Liu & Scott Rozelle, 2006. "Investing in Rural China: Tracking China's Commitment to Modernization," Chinese Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(4), pages 57-84, August.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. You, Jing, 2013. "The role of microcredit in older children’s nutrition: Quasi-experimental evidence from rural China," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 167-179.
    2. Jing You, 2014. "Dietary change, nutrient transition and food security in fast-growing China," Chapters,in: Handbook on Food, chapter 9, pages 204-245 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Ren, Weiwei & Rammohan, Anu & Wu, Yanrui, 2014. "Is there a gender gap in child nutritional outcomes in rural China?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 145-155.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Health; Education; Nutrition; Primary school children; Rural China;

    JEL classification:

    • I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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