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Nutrition and Educational Performance in Rural China's Elementary Schools: Results of a Randomized Control Trial in Shaanxi Province

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  • Renfu Luo
  • Yaojiang Shi
  • Linxiu Zhang
  • Chengfang Liu
  • Scott Rozelle
  • Brian Sharbono
  • Ai Yue
  • Qiran Zhao
  • Reynaldo Martorell

Abstract

Despite growing wealth and a strengthening commitment from the government to provide quality education, a significant share of students across rural China still have inadequate access to micronutrient-rich regular diets. Such poor diets can lead to nutritional problems, such as iron-deficiency anemia, that can adversely affect attention and learning in school. The overall goal of this article is to test whether simple nutritional interventions lower rates of anemia and to assess whether this leads to improved educational performance among students in poor areas of rural China. To meet this goal, we report on the results of a randomized control trial involving over 3,600 fourth-grade students, mostly aged 9-12, from 66 randomly chosen elementary schools in eight of the poorest counties in Shaanxi Province in China's poor northwest region. The design called for random assignment of schools to one of three groups: two different types of treatment/intervention schools and a nonintervention, control group. The two interventions were designed to improve hemoglobin (Hb) levels, which is a measure of iron deficiency. One intervention provided a daily multivitamin with mineral supplements, including 5 milligrams of iron, for 5 months. The other informed the parents of their child's anemia status and suggested several courses of action (henceforth, the information treatment). We found that 38.3% of the students had Hb levels below 120 grams per liter (g/L), the World Health Organization's cutoff for anemia for children 9-12 years old. In the schools that received the multivitamins with mineral supplements, Hb levels rose by more than 2 g/L (about 0.2 standard deviations). The standardized math test scores of the students in the schools that received the multivitamin with mineral supplements also improved significantly. In schools that received the information treatment, only students who lived at home (and not the students who lived in boarding schools and took most of their meals at schools) registered positive improvements in their Hb levels. The reductions in anemia rates and improvements in test scores were greater for students who were anemic at the beginning of the study period. Overall, these results should encourage China's Ministry of Education to begin to widen its view of education (beyond teachers, facilities, and curriculum) and to provide better nutrition and health care for students.

Suggested Citation

  • Renfu Luo & Yaojiang Shi & Linxiu Zhang & Chengfang Liu & Scott Rozelle & Brian Sharbono & Ai Yue & Qiran Zhao & Reynaldo Martorell, 2012. "Nutrition and Educational Performance in Rural China's Elementary Schools: Results of a Randomized Control Trial in Shaanxi Province," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(4), pages 735-772.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:ecdecc:doi:10.1086/665606
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Xiaobing Wang & Chengfang Liu & Linxiu Zhang & Renfu Luo & Thomas Glauben & Yaojiang Shi & Scott Rozelle & Brian Sharbono, 2011. "What is keeping the poor out of college?: Enrollment rates, educational barriers and college matriculation in China," China Agricultural Economic Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 131-149, May.
    2. Hongbin Li & Pak Wai Liu & Ning Ma & Junsen Zhang, 2005. "Does Education Pay in Urban China? Estimating Returns to Education Using Twins," Discussion Papers 00013, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics.
    3. Khan, Azizur Rahman & Riskin, Carl, 2001. "Inequality and Poverty in China in the Age of Globalization," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195136494.
    4. Gustavo J. Bobonis & Edward Miguel & Charu Puri-Sharma, 2006. "Anemia and School Participation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4).
    5. Olivia, Susan & Gibson, John & Rozelle, Scott & Huang, Jikun & Deng, Xiangzheng, 2011. "Mapping poverty in rural China: how much does the environment matter?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(02), pages 129-153, April.
    6. Liu, Chengfang & Zhang, Linxiu & Luo, Renfu & Wang, Xiaobing & Rozelle, Scott & Sharbono, Brian & Adams, Jennifer & Shi, Yaojiang & Yue, Ai & Li, Hongbin & Glauben, Thomas, 2011. "Early commitment on financial aid and college decision making of poor students: Evidence from a randomized evaluation in rural China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 627-640, August.
    7. Linxiu Zhang & Renfu Luo & Chengfang Liu & Scott Rozelle, 2006. "Investing in Rural China: Tracking China's Commitment to Modernization," Chinese Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(4), pages 57-84, August.
    8. Renfu Luo & Yaojiang Shi & Linxiu Zhang & Chengfang Liu & Scott Rozelle & Brian Sharbono, "undated". "Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: the Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province," REAP Papers 22714, Rural Education Action Project at Stanford University.
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    Cited by:

    1. You, Jing, 2013. "The role of microcredit in older children’s nutrition: Quasi-experimental evidence from rural China," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 167-179.
    2. Kleiman-Weiner, Max & Luo, Renfu & Zhang, Linxiu & Shi, Yaojiang & Medina, Alexis & Rozelle, Scott, 2013. "Eggs versus chewable vitamins: Which intervention can increase nutrition and test scores in rural China?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 165-176.
    3. Eriksson, Tor & Pan, Jay & Qin, Xuezheng, 2014. "The intergenerational inequality of health in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 392-409.
    4. repec:eee:injoed:v:54:y:2017:i:c:p:26-38 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Bai, Yu & Zhang, Linxiu & Liu, Chengfang & Shi, Yaojiang & Mo, Di & Rozelle, Scott, 2016. "Effect of Parental Migration on the Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Northwestern China," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236806, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    6. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2016. "Global Nutrition Report 2016: From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030," IFPRI books, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), number 978-0-89629-584-1.
    7. Glewwe, Paul & Park, Albert & Zhao, Meng, 2016. "A better vision for development: Eyeglasses and academic performance in rural primary schools in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 170-182.
    8. Ren Mu & Alan Brauw, 2015. "Migration and young child nutrition: evidence from rural China," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 631-657, July.
    9. Yaojiang Shi & Fang Chang & Xiaoqing Su & Renfu Luo & Linxiu Zhang & Scott Rozelle, 2012. "Parental training, anemia and the impact on the nutrition of female students in China's poor rural elementary schools," China Agricultural Economic Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 4(2), pages 151-167, May.
    10. Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Glewwe, Paul, 2015. "A framework for physical growth and child development:," IFPRI discussion papers 1435, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    11. Hongbin Li & Prashant Loyalka & Scott Rozelle & Binzhen Wu, 2017. "Human Capital and China's Future Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 31(1), pages 25-48, Winter.
    12. Wang, Huan & Yang, Chu & He, Fei & Shi, Yaojiang & Qu, Qinghe & Rozelle, Scott & Chu, James, 2015. "Mental health and dropout behavior: A cross-sectional study of junior high students in northwest rural China," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 1-12.
    13. Glewwe, Paul & Park, Albert & Zhao, Meng, 2012. "Visualizing Development:Eyeglasses and Academic Performance in Rural Primary Schools in China," Working Papers 120032, University of Minnesota, Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.
    14. repec:eee:chieco:v:44:y:2017:i:c:p:79-97 is not listed on IDEAS

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