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Entrepreneurship versus Joblessness - Explaining the Rise in Self-Employment

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  • Haywood, Luke
  • Falco, Paolo

Abstract

The self-employed constitute a large proportion of the workforce in developing countries and the sector has been found to be growing further. Different accounts exist as to the cause of this development, with pull factors such as high returns to capital and increased wealth contrasted with push factors such as barriers to entry into the wage sectors following traditional segmeted labour market models. This article considers changes in the structure of earnings for the self-employed in Ghana and compares them with the wage employed. Models of segmented labour markets typically consider sorting on unobservables to be important, and often posit a sector choice model. If there are barriers to entry into one of the sectors, however, selection on unobservables there may be no clear selection rule. We apply a simple model of a two-sector labour market and estimate earnings using a correlated random coef cients model that allows for multiple patterns of sorting and selection on unobservables using instrumental variables GMM. We nd evidence of increasing return to productive characteristics for the self-employed, but also a large wage premium.

Suggested Citation

  • Haywood, Luke & Falco, Paolo, 2013. "Entrepreneurship versus Joblessness - Explaining the Rise in Self-Employment," VfS Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 80016, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:vfsc13:80016
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    1. Économie informelle : cinq mythes à déconstruire à travers le monde
      by The Conversation in Contrepoints on 2019-06-18 02:30:11

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    2. Prodyumna Goutam & Italo A. Gutierrez & Krishna B. Kumar & Shanthi Nataraj, 2017. "Does Informal Employment Respond to Growth Opportunities? Trade-Based Evidence from Bangladesh," Working Papers WR-1198, RAND Corporation.
    3. Hershey, D.A. & van Dalen, Harry & Conen, Wieteke & Henkens, Kene, 2017. "Are “voluntary” self-employed better prepared for retirement than “forced” self-employed?," Other publications TiSEM 039ee146-e32b-444a-a5c6-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Martin Mabunda Baluku & Julius Fred Kikooma & Edward Bantu & Peter Onderi & Kathleen Otto, 2019. "Impact of personal cultural orientations and cultural intelligence on subjective success in self-employment in multi-ethnic societies," Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, Springer;UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship, vol. 9(1), pages 1-22, December.
    5. Wagener, Andreas & Zenker, Juliane, 2018. "Decoupled but not neutral: The effects of stochastic transfers on investment and incomes in rural Thailand," TVSEP Working Papers wp-008, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Development and Agricultural Economics, Project TVSEP.
    6. Andy McKay & Jukka Pirttilä & Caroline Schimanski, 2019. "The tax elasticity of formal work in African countries," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2019-69, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Tenzin Yindok & Alexander Karaivanov, 2016. "Involuntary Entrepreneurship - Evidence from Thai Urban Data," 2016 Meeting Papers 598, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    8. Girum Abebe & Stefano Caria & Marcel Fafchamps & Paolo Falco & Simon Franklin & Simon Quinn, 2016. "Curse of Anonymity or Tyranny of Distance? The Impacts of Job-Search Support in Urban Ethiopia," CSAE Working Paper Series 2016-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    9. Víctor M. González-Sánchez & Antonio Martínez Raya & Susana de los Ríos-Sastre, 2020. "An Empirical Study for European Countries: Factors Affecting Economic Growth and Self-Employment by Gender," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(22), pages 1-15, November.
    10. Yoonyoung Cho & David Robalino & Samantha Watson, 2016. "Supporting self-employment and small-scale entrepreneurship: potential programs to improve livelihoods for vulnerable workers," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-26, December.
    11. Alain Kikandi Kiuma & Abdelkrim Araar & Christian Kamala Kaghoma, 2020. "Internal migration and youth entrepreneurship in the Democratic Republic of the Congo," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 790-814, August.
    12. Zulaicha Parastuty & Dieter Bögenhold, 2019. "Paving the Way for Self-Employment: Does Society Matter?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-16, January.
    13. Surbhi Kesar & Snehashish Bhattacharya, 2020. "Dualism and Structural Transformation: The Informal Manufacturing Sector in India," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 32(3), pages 560-586, July.
    14. Martin Mabunda Baluku & Edward Bantu & Kathleen Otto, 2018. "Effect of Locus of Control on Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Self-Employment Intentions: The Moderating Role of Individualism," Journal of Enterprising Culture (JEC), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 26(03), pages 251-283, September.
    15. Kamei,Akito & Nakamura,Shohei, 2020. "Urban Agglomerations and Employment Transitions in Ethiopia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9184, The World Bank.
    16. Prodyumna Goutam & Italo A. Gutierrez & Krishna B. Kumar & Shanthi Nataraj, 2017. "Does Informal Employment Respond to Growth Opportunities? Trade-Based Evidence from Bangladesh," Working Papers 1198, RAND Corporation.
    17. Martin Owusu Ansah & Richard Chinomona, 2017. "The influence of Ghana's national culture on latent entrepreneurs: An application of Social Rule System Theory," Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, AMH International, vol. 9(1), pages 113-126.

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    JEL classification:

    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J42 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets

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