Entrepreneurship versus Joblessness: Explaining the Rise in Self-Employment
The self-employed constitute a large proportion of the workforce in developing countries and the sector is growing. Different accounts exist as to the causes of this development, with pull factors such as high returns to capital contrasted with push factors such as barriers to more desirable salaried jobs. Using data from Ghana, we investigate the changing structure of earnings in self-employment relative to salaried work. We decompose earnings in a two-sector labour market allowing for flexible patterns of sorting on unobservables by means of a correlated random coefficient model estimated by IV-GMM. A unique panel dataset provides us with suitable instruments to tackle the endogeneity of sector choice and capital accumulation. We show that returns to productive characteristics in SE have increased significantly over the period 2004-11 and the sector has attracted workers with higher skills. We conclude that pull factors have significantly strengthened, pointing against the grim view of self-employment as an occupation of last resort.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.diw.de/en
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
- David G. Blanchflower, 2004. "Self-Employment: More may not be better," NBER Working Papers 10286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Günther, Isabel & Launov, Andrey, 2012. "Informal employment in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 88-98.
- Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew & Stutzer, Alois, 2001. "Latent entrepreneurship across nations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 680-691, May.
- Falco, Paolo & Maloney, William F. & Rijkers, Bob & Sarrias, Mauricio, 2012.
"Heterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing: An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa,"
IZA Discussion Papers
7057, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Falco, Paolo & Maloney, William F. & Rijkers, Bob & Sarrias, Mauricio, 2015. "Heterogeneity in subjective wellbeing: An application to occupational allocation in Africa," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 137-153.
- Paolo Falco & William F. Maloney & Bob Rijkers & Mauricio Sarrias, 2010. "Heterogeneity in Subjective Wellbeing: An Application to Occupational Allocation in Africa," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 010494, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
- Falco, Paolo & Maloney, William F. & Rijkers, Bob & Sarrias, Mauricio, 2012. "Heterogeneity in subjective wellbeing : an application to occupational allocation in Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6244, The World Bank.
- Michael P. Keane & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 1995.
"The career decisions of young men,"
559, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Paolo Falco, 2013.
"Does risk matter for occupational choices? Experimentsl evidence from an African labour market,"
Economics Series Working Papers
WPS/2013-15, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Falco, Paolo, 2014. "Does risk matter for occupational choices? Experimental evidence from an African labour market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 96-109.
- Paolo Falco, 2013. "Does risk matter for occupational choices? Experimental evidence from an African labour market," CSAE Working Paper Series 2013-15, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Lemieux, Thomas, 1998. "Estimating the Effects of Unions on Wage Inequality in a Panel Data Model with Comparative Advantage and Nonrandom Selection," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(2), pages 261-91, April.
- Francis Teal & Geeta Kingdon & Justin Sandefur, 2005.
"Labor Market Flexibility, Wages and Incomes in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s,"
Economics Series Working Papers
GPRG-WPS-030, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Geeta Kingdon & Justin Sandefur & Francis Teal, 2006. "Labour Market Flexibility, Wages and Incomes in Sub‐Saharan Africa in the 1990s," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 18(3), pages 392-427.
- Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998.
"What Makes an Entrepreneur?,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
- Paul Robson & Helen Haugh & Bernard Obeng, 2009. "Entrepreneurship and innovation in Ghana: enterprising Africa," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 331-350, March.
- Poschke, Markus, 2010.
""Entrepreneurs out of Necessity": A Snapshot,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4893, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Imbert, Clement, 2013.
"Decomposing the labor market earnings inequality: the public and private sectors in Vietnam, 1993-2006,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
6344, The World Bank.
- Clément Imbert, 2013. "Decomposing the Labor Market Earnings Inequality: The Public and Private Sectors in Vietnam, 1993–2006," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 27(1), pages 55-79.
- Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-82, January.
- Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000.
"GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1999. "GMM estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," IFS Working Papers W99/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Hugo Ñopo & Nancy Daza & Johanna Ramos, 2012. "Gender earning gaps around the world: a study of 64 countries," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(5), pages 464-513, March.
- Fasih, Tazeen & Kingdon, Geeta & Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Sakellariou, Chris & Soderbom, Mans, 2012. "Heterogeneous returns to education in the labor market," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6170, The World Bank.
- Clément Imbert, 2011. "Decomposing wage inequality: Public and private sectors in Vietnam 1993-2006," PSE Working Papers halshs-00564653, HAL.
- Federico Huneeus & Oscar Landerretche & Esteban Puentes, 2012. "Multidimensional Measure of Job Quality: Persistence and Heterogeneity in a Developing Country," Working Papers wp357, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
- Christopher Udry & Santosh Anagol, 2006.
"The Return to Capital in Ghana,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 388-393, May.
- Tavneet Suri, 2011. "Selection and Comparative Advantage in Technology Adoption," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(1), pages 159-209, 01.
- Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1988.
"Estimating Vector Autoregressions with Panel Data,"
Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1371-95, November.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to demonstrate IV estimation of VAR in panel data," Statistical Software Components RTZ00185, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Chamberlain, Gary, 1982. "Multivariate regression models for panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 5-46, January.
- Magnac, Thierry & Robin, Jean-Marc, 1996. "Occupational choice and liquidity constraints," Ricerche Economiche, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 105-133, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp1334. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bibliothek)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.