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‘Entrepreneurs out of necessity’: a snapshot

  • Markus Poschke

‘Entrepreneurs out of necessity’ as identified by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey are a sizeable group across countries. This article documents that they tend to have low education, run smaller firms, expect their firms to grow less, but are likely to stay in the market. This evidence matters for policy supporting small businesses. It is a challenge for existing theories of heterogeneous firms and points to the importance of heterogeneous outside options.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/13504851.2012.727968
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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Applied Economics Letters.

Volume (Year): 20 (2013)
Issue (Month): 7 (May)
Pages: 658-663

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Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:20:y:2013:i:7:p:658-663
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  1. Paul Reynolds & Niels Bosma & Erkko Autio & Steve Hunt & Natalie De Bono & Isabel Servais & Paloma Lopez-Garcia & Nancy Chin, 2005. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data Collection Design and Implementation 1998–2003," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 205-231, 02.
  2. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2008. "Explaining International Differences in Entrepreneurship: The Role of Individual Characteristics and Regulatory Constraints," NBER Working Papers 14012, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Nickell, Stephen J, 1979. "Estimating the Probability of Leaving Unemployment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1249-66, September.
  5. Lucia Foster & John C. Haltiwanger & C. J. Krizan, 2001. "Aggregate Productivity Growth. Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 303-372 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Hopenhayn, Hugo A, 1992. "Entry, Exit, and Firm Dynamics in Long Run Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(5), pages 1127-50, September.
  7. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
  8. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
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