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Dynamic cities and creative clusters

Author

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  • Weiping Wu

Abstract

The author focuses on how urban policies and the clustering of creative industries has influenced urban outcomes. The set of creative industries include those with output protectable under some form of intellectual property law. More specifically, this sub-sector encompasses software, multimedia, video games, industrial design, fashion, publishing, and research and development. The cities that form the basis for the empirical investigations are those where policy-induced transitions have been most evident, including Boston; San Francisco; San Diego; Seattle; Austin; Washington, D.C.; Dublin (Ireland); Hong Kong (China); and Bangalore (India). The key research questions are: 1) What types of cities are creative? 2) What locational factors are essential? 3) What are the common urban policy initiatives used by creative cities? The author explores the importance of the external environment for innovation and places it in the larger context of national innovation systems. Based on a study of development in Boston and San Diego, he isolates the factors and policies that have contributed to the local clustering of particular creative industries. In both cities, universities have played a major role in catalyzing the local economy by generating cutting-edge research findings, proactively collaborating with industries, and supplying the needed human capital. In addition, these two cities benefited from the existence of anchor firms and active industry associations that promoted fruitful university-industry links. Many cities in East Asia are aspiring to become the creative hubs of the region. But their investments tend to be heavily biased toward infrastructure provision. Although this is necessary, the heavy emphasis on hardware can lead to underinvestment in developing the talents and skills needed for the emergence of creative industries in these cities.

Suggested Citation

  • Weiping Wu, 2005. "Dynamic cities and creative clusters," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3509, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3509
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jason Owen-Smith & Massimo Riccaboni & Fabio Pammolli & Walter W. Powell, 2002. "A Comparison of U.S. and European University-Industry Relations in the Life Sciences," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 24-43, January.
    2. Allen J. Scott, 1997. "The Cultural Economy of Cities," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 323-339, June.
    3. Edward L. Glaeser & Albert Saiz, 2003. "The rise of the skilled city," Working Papers 04-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    4. Maryann P. Feldman & Johanna L. Francis, 2003. "Fortune Favours the Prepared Region: The Case of Entrepreneurship and the Capitol Region Biotechnology Cluster," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(7), pages 765-788, October.
    5. Bob Jessop & Ngai-Ling Sum, 2000. "An Entrepreneurial City in Action: Hong Kong's Emerging Strategies in and for (Inter)Urban Competition," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 37(12), pages 2287-2313, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Roberta Comunian & Alessandra Faggian & Qian Cher Li, 2010. "Unrewarded careers in the creative class: The strange case of bohemian graduates," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(2), pages 389-410, June.
    2. Roberta Comunian, 2011. "Networks of knowledge and support. Mapping relations between public, private and not for profit sector in the creative economy," ERSA conference papers ersa10p275, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Wu, Weiping, 2007. "Cultivating Research Universities and Industrial Linkages in China: The Case of Shanghai," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1075-1093, June.
    4. Yawei Chen, 2012. "Making Shanghai a Creative City: Exploring the Creative Cluster Strategy from a Chinese Perspective," Chapters,in: Creative Knowledge Cities, chapter 17 Edward Elgar Publishing.

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