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Demographic Change and Regional Competitiveness: The Effects of Immigration and Ageing

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Abstract

The demographic profile of a region is usually seen as a slowly changing background phenomenon in the analysis of regional competitiveness and regional growth. However, regional demographic change can have a significant impact on regional competitiveness and such change is often more rapid and profound than at the national level. In turn, regional population size, growth, composition and distribution are endogenous to regional economic development. This paper focuses on the impact of population ageing and immigration on aspects of regional competitiveness such as innovation, entrepreneurship and productivity. Immigration and ageing trends have generated huge separate literatures but it is argued here that it is fruitful to consider these trends jointly. Theoretically, there are many channels through which immigration and population ageing can affect regional competitiveness. There is empirical evidence that population ageing reduces regional competitiveness, while immigration – particularly of entrepreneurs and highly skilled workers to metropolitan areas – enhances competitiveness. Much of the available literature is based on small-scale case studies and rigorous econometric research on the impact of demographic change at the regional level is still remarkably rare. Some directions for further research are suggested.

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  • Jacques Poot, 2007. "Demographic Change and Regional Competitiveness: The Effects of Immigration and Ageing," Population Studies Centre Discussion Papers dp-64, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:wai:pscdps:dp-64
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    Cited by:

    1. Baycan, Tüzin & Sahin, Mediha & Nijkamp, Peter, 2012. "The urban growth potential of second-generation migrant entrepreneurs: A sectoral study on Amsterdam," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 971-986.
    2. Ceren Ozgen, 2011. "The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Innovation: Evidence from Dutch Firm-Level Data," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2011013, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
    3. Christian Schmidt, 2011. "Commuting and Migration Decisions under Cost Uncertainty," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1481, European Regional Science Association.
    4. Rob Hodgson & Jacques Poot, 2011. "New Zealand Research on the Economic Impacts of Immigration 2005-2010: Synthesis and Research Agenda," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1104, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    5. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2013. "Measuring Cultural Diversity and its Impact on Innovation: Longitudinal Evidence from Dutch firms," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2013003, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
    6. Jacques Poot & Lynda Sanderson, 2007. "Changes in Social Security Eligibility and the International Mobility of New Zealand Citizens in Australia," Population Studies Centre Discussion Papers dp-65, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre.
    7. Richter, Doreen, 2014. "Demographic change and innovation: The ongoing challenge from the diversity of the labor force," management revue - Socio-Economic Studies, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, vol. 25(3), pages 166-184.
    8. Jacques Poot & Anna Strutt, 2010. "International Trade Agreements and International Migration," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(12), pages 1923-1954, December.
    9. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2013. "The impact of cultural diversity on firm innovation: evidence from Dutch micro-data," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-24, December.
    10. Peter Mayerhofer & Matthias Firgo & Stefan Schönfelder, 2015. "Vierter Bericht zur internationalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit Wiens," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 60625, February.
    11. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2010. "The effect of migration on income growth and convergence: Meta‐analytic evidence," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(3), pages 537-561, August.
    12. Sarah Harper, 2013. "Population–Environment Interactions: European Migration, Population Composition and Climate Change," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 55(4), pages 525-541, August.
    13. Ozgen, Ceren & Nijkamp, Peter & Poot, Jacques, 2011. "The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Innovation: Evidence from Dutch Firm-Level Data," IZA Discussion Papers 6000, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Wang, Xinxin & Chen, Kevin & Huang, Zuhui, 2013. "The Impact of China's Demographic Transition on Economic Growth and Income Distribution: CGE Modeling with Top-Down Micro-Simulation," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 151276, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    15. Krystian Heffner & Brygida Klemens & Brygida Solga, 2019. "Challenges of Regional Development in the Context of Population Ageing. Analysis Based on the Example of Opolskie Voivodeship," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(19), pages 1-23, September.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    regional competitiveness; immigration; population ageing; innovation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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