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The effect of migration on income growth and convergence: Meta-analytic evidence


  • Ceren Ozgen
  • Peter Nijkamp
  • Jacques Poot


We compare a set of econometric studies that measure the effect of net internal migration in neoclassical models of long-run real income convergence and derive 67 comparable effect sizes. The precision-weighted estimate of beta convergence is about 2.7 per cent. An increase of one percentage point in the net migration rate of a region increases the per capita income growth rate in that region on average by about 0.1 percentage points. Introducing a net migration variable in a growth regression increases the estimate of beta convergence slightly. Studies that use panel models or IV estimation methods yield smaller coefficients of net migration in growth regressions, while the opposite holds for regressions controlling for high-skilled migration. Copyright (c) 2010 the author(s). Journal compilation (c) 2010 RSAI.

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  • Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2010. "The effect of migration on income growth and convergence: Meta-analytic evidence," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(3), pages 537-561, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:presci:v:89:y:2010:i:3:p:537-561

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    9. Adolfo Maza, 2006. "Migrations and Regional Convergence: The Case of Spain," Review of Regional Research: Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, Springer;Gesellschaft für Regionalforschung (GfR), vol. 26(2), pages 191-202, October.
    10. Bernard Fingleton & Manfred Fischer, 2010. "Neoclassical theory versus new economic geography: competing explanations of cross-regional variation in economic development," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 44(3), pages 467-491, June.
    11. Hideaki Toya & Kaoru Hosono & Tatsuji Makino, 2004. "Human Capital, Migration, and Regional Income Convergence in the Philippines," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d03-18, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
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    Cited by:

    1. Peter Huber & Gabriele Tondl, 2012. "Migration and regional convergence in the European Union," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 439-460, November.
    2. ., 2012. "Migration impact assessment: a state of the art," Chapters,in: Migration Impact Assessment, chapter 1, pages 3-62 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Sofia Tano, 2014. "Regional clustering of human capital: school grades and migration of university graduates," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 52(2), pages 561-581, March.
    4. Kourtit, Karima & Nijkamp, Peter & Gheasi, Masood, 2017. "Fortunado’s, Desperado’s and Clandestino’s in Diaspora Labour Markets: The Circular 'Homo Mobilis'," GLO Discussion Paper Series 39, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    5. Hildegunn Stokke & Jörn Rattsö, 2011. "Income convergence, migration and geography: Distribution analysis of regions in Norway," ERSA conference papers ersa10p174, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Fernandez-Leiceaga, Xoaquin & Lago-Peñas, Santiago & Sánchez, Patricio, 2013. "¿Ha contribuido la población inmigrante a la convergencia interregional en España?
      [On the contribution of immigrants to interregional convergence in Spain]
      ," MPRA Paper 52381, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. K. Newbold, 2012. "Migration and regional science: opportunities and challenges in a changing environment," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 48(2), pages 451-468, April.
    8. Kubis, Alexander & Schneider, Lutz, 2012. "Human capital mobility and convergence : a spatial dynamic panel model of the German regions," IAB Discussion Paper 201223, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    9. Emmanuel Skoufias & Gladys Lopez-Acevedo, 2009. "Latin America - Determinants of Regional Welfare Disparities within Latin American Countries : Synthesis," World Bank Other Operational Studies 3048, The World Bank.
    10. Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2015. "Cultural Diversity - A Matter of Measurement," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1502, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    11. Licia Ferranna & Margherita Gerolimetto & Stefano Magrini, 2016. "The effect of immigration on convergence dynamics in the US," Working Papers 2016:27, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
    12. Şule Akkoyunlu, 2012. "Intervening Opportunities and Competing Migrants in Turkish migration to Germany, 1969-2008," Migration Letters, Transnational Press London, UK, vol. 9(2), pages 155-175, May.
    13. Nijkamp, P. & Poot, H.J., 2012. "Migration impact assessment: A state of the art," Serie Research Memoranda 0009, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    14. Peter Nijkamp, 2012. "Migration Impact Assessment: A Review of Evidence-Based Findings," Review of Economic Analysis, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, vol. 4(2), pages 179-208, December.
    15. Celbis, Mehmet Güney & Nijkamp, Peter & Poot, Jacques, 2013. "How big is the impact of infrastructure on trade? Evidence from meta-analysis," MERIT Working Papers 032, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    16. Stephan Brunow & Hanna Brenzel, 2012. "The effect of a culturally diverse labour supply on regional income in the EU," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 461-485, November.
    17. Nadia Granato & Anette Haas & Silke Hamann & Annekatrin Niebuhr, 2015. "The Impact Of Skill-Specific Migration On Regional Unemployment Disparities In Germany," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(4), pages 513-539, September.
    18. Annie Tubadji & Peter Nijkamp, 2013. "Cultural Distance and Gravity Effects among Migrants," ERSA conference papers ersa13p484, European Regional Science Association.
    19. Timo Mitze & Torben Schmidt, 2015. "Internal migration, regional labor markets and the role of agglomeration economies," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 55(1), pages 61-101, October.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes


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