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Human Capital, Migration, and Regional Income Convergence in the Philippines


  • Hideaki Toya
  • Kaoru Hosono
  • Tatsuji Makino


We test the convergence of real income using the Philippine regional data over the period of 1980-2000. Differences in real income across regions were large and persistent. Though regional incomes did not converge towards a common level (absolute convergence), they did converge controlling for human capital measured by average schooling years (conditional convergence). Human capital and its accumulation contributed to economic growth. People with higher human capital were more likely to move across regions. In addition, people tended to move from poor to rich regions. The absence in the absolute convergence may be due to the fact that higher human capital tended to move from poor to rich regions.

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  • Hideaki Toya & Kaoru Hosono & Tatsuji Makino, 2004. "Human Capital, Migration, and Regional Income Convergence in the Philippines," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d03-18, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hst:hstdps:d03-18

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    1. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
    2. Helmut Hofer & Andreas Worgotter, 1997. "Regional Per Capita Income Convergence in Austria," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(1), pages 1-12.
    3. Kawagoe, Masaaki, 1999. "Regional Dynamics in Japan: A Reexamination of Barro Regressions," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 61-72, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Peter Huber & Gabriele Tondl, 2012. "Migration and regional convergence in the European Union," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 439-460, November.
    2. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2010. "The effect of migration on income growth and convergence: Meta-analytic evidence," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(3), pages 537-561, August.
    3. Elena Vakulenko, 2016. "Does migration lead to regional convergence in Russia?," International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 9(1), pages 1-25.
    4. Etzo, Ivan, 2008. "Internal migration and growth in Italy," MPRA Paper 8642, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Etzo, Ivan, 2008. "Internal migration: a review of the literature," MPRA Paper 8783, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2009. "The Effect of Migration on Income Convergence: Meta-Analytic Evidence," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-022/3, Tinbergen Institute.

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