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International Trade Agreements and International Migration

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Despite large potential economic gains to the countries concerned, bilateral and multilateral negotiations regarding liberalization of migration have not had the high profile of trade negotiations and agreements. Migration and trade have been traditionally the prerogative of different ministries, yet there are many interdependencies between international trade, foreign investment and migration. The relevance of these interdependencies for trade negotiations has been remarkably ignored in the literature. In this paper we therefore focus on the two-way interaction between international migration and agreements designed to enhance cross-border trade or investment. Liberalization of international trade in services and the movement of people are likely to offer much more significant economic gains than liberalization of remaining barriers to goods trade. However, progress within multilateral frameworks is fraught with difficulty. Mode IV of GATS is restricted to temporary movement of service employees and has yielded little progress so far. Negotiations within more flexible unilateral and bilateral frameworks are likely to be more successful in liberalizing the movement of labour. We discuss several specific examples and conclude that trade negotiations are increasingly accommodating migration policies that favour temporary migration over permanent migration and that the migration regulatory framework is likely to be further linked to trade and investment over time.

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  • Jacques Poot & Anna Strutt, 2009. "International Trade Agreements and International Migration," Working Papers in Economics 09/06, University of Waikato.
  • Handle: RePEc:wai:econwp:09/06
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    1. ., 2012. "Migration impact assessment: a state of the art," Chapters, in: Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot & Mediha Sahin (ed.), Migration Impact Assessment, chapter 1, pages 3-62, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Wang, Yang, 2020. "Does education exchange matters?-evidence from education cooperation effects on OFDI," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 55-65.
    3. Murat Genc & Masood Gheasi & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2012. "The impact of immigration on international trade: a meta-analysis," Chapters, in: Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot & Mediha Sahin (ed.), Migration Impact Assessment, chapter 9, pages 301-337, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Gheasi, M. & Nijkamp, P. & Rietveld, P., 2009. "Migration and tourist flows," Serie Research Memoranda 0059, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    5. Gani, Azmat & Scrimgeour, Frank, 2016. "New Zealand's trade with Asia and the role of good governance," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 36-53.
    6. Witada Anukoonwattaka & Adam Heal, 2013. "Regional Integration and Labour Mobility," Studies in Trade and Investment 81, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).
    7. Gheasi, M.A.G. & Nijkamp, P., 2011. "Migration, tourism and international trade: Evidence from the UK," Serie Research Memoranda 0029, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    8. Michele Ford & Kumiko Kawashima, 2016. "Regulatory approaches to managing skilled migration: Indonesian nurses in Japan," The Economic and Labour Relations Review, , vol. 27(2), pages 231-247, June.
    9. Marcus H. Böhme & Sarah Kups, 2017. "The economic effects of labour immigration in developing countries: A literature review," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 335, OECD Publishing.
    10. Yasin Kerem Gumus, 2015. "What explains differences in countries’ migration policies?," International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), Center for the Strategic Studies in Business and Finance, vol. 4(1), pages 51-65, January.
    11. Bakens, J. & Nijkamp, P., 2011. "Lessons from migration impact analysis," Serie Research Memoranda 0022, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    12. Nijkamp, P. & Poot, H.J., 2012. "Migration impact assessment: A state of the art," Serie Research Memoranda 0009, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    13. Selim Çagatay & Murat Genç & Onur Koska, 2013. "The Impact of Immigration on International Trade in Europe: The Case of the EU-Mediterranean-Eastern Europe Zone," ERSA conference papers ersa13p376, European Regional Science Association.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    international trade; migration; outsourcing; temporary workers; GATS; negotiation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration

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