IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

International Trade Agreements and International Migration

Despite large potential economic gains to the countries concerned, bilateral and multilateral negotiations regarding liberalization of migration have not had the high profile of trade negotiations and agreements. Migration and trade have been traditionally the prerogative of different ministries, yet there are many interdependencies between international trade, foreign investment and migration. The relevance of these interdependencies for trade negotiations has been remarkably ignored in the literature. In this paper we therefore focus on the two-way interaction between international migration and agreements designed to enhance cross-border trade or investment. Liberalization of international trade in services and the movement of people are likely to offer much more significant economic gains than liberalization of remaining barriers to goods trade. However, progress within multilateral frameworks is fraught with difficulty. Mode IV of GATS is restricted to temporary movement of service employees and has yielded little progress so far. Negotiations within more flexible unilateral and bilateral frameworks are likely to be more successful in liberalizing the movement of labour. We discuss several specific examples and conclude that trade negotiations are increasingly accommodating migration policies that favour temporary migration over permanent migration and that the migration regulatory framework is likely to be further linked to trade and investment over time.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University of Waikato, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 09/06.

in new window

Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: 04 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wai:econwp:09/06
Contact details of provider: Postal: Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand, 3240
Phone: + 64 (0)7 838 4758 (Administrator)
Fax: + 64 7 838 4331
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Robert C. Feenstra, . "Integration Of Trade And Disintegration Of Production In The Global Economy," Department of Economics 98-06, California Davis - Department of Economics.
  2. Thierry Mayer & Pierre-Philippe Combes & Miren Lafourcade, 2004. "Can Business and Social Networks Explain the Border Effect Puzzle?," Econometric Society 2004 North American Winter Meetings 330, Econometric Society.
  3. Jacques Poot & Lynda Sanderson, 2007. "Changes in social security eligibility and the international mobility of New Zealand citizens in Australia," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0712, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  4. Jagdish Bhagwati & Arvind Panagariya & T. N. Srinivasan, 2004. "The Muddles over Outsourcing," International Trade 0408004, EconWPA.
  5. Anna Maria Mayda, 2006. "Why are people more pro-trade than pro-migration?," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0611, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  6. Roger White, 2007. "Immigrant-trade links, transplanted home bias and network effects," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(7), pages 839-852.
  7. Markusen, James R., 1983. "Factor movements and commodity trade as complements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3-4), pages 341-356, May.
  8. Schiff, Maurice, 2007. "Optimal Immigration Policy: Permanent, Guest-Worker, or Mode IV?," IZA Discussion Papers 3083, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Epstein, Gil S & Gang, Ira, 2004. "Ethnic Networks and International Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 4616, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Wagner, Don & Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2002. "Immigration and the Trade of Provinces," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 507-25, December.
  11. Canavire Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier & Ehrlich, Laura, 2006. "The Impact of Migration on Foreign Trade: A Developing Country Approach," MPRA Paper 1090, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. E. Paul Durrenberger, 2005. "Labour," Chapters, in: A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, chapter 8 Edward Elgar.
  13. Roberta Piermartini & Marion Jansen, 2005. "The Impact of Mode 4 Liberalization on Bilateral Trade Flows," Working Papers id:290, eSocialSciences.
  14. Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr, 2011. "Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 24(1), pages 1-32, Spring.
  15. Anna Maria Mayda, 2006. "Who Is Against Immigration? A Cross-Country Investigation of Individual Attitudes toward Immigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(3), pages 510-530, August.
  16. Simonetta Longhi & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2004. "A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Effect of Immigration on Wages," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-134/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  17. Gordon H. Hanson, 2008. "The Economic Consequences of the International Migration of Labor," NBER Working Papers 14490, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Borjas, George J., 1999. "The economic analysis of immigration," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1697-1760 Elsevier.
  19. Walmsley, Terrie & Ahmed, Syud Amer & Parsons, Christopher, 2005. "The Impact of Liberalizing Labor Mobility in the Pacific Region," GTAP Working Papers 1874, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
  20. John Bryant & Murat Genç & David Law, 2005. "Trade and Migration to New Zealand," ERSA conference papers ersa05p192, European Regional Science Association.
  21. Philip McCann & Jacques Poot & Lynda Sanderson, 2010. "Migration, relationship capital and international travel: theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 361-387, May.
  22. Chi-Yung Ng & John Whalley, 2005. "Visas and Work Permits: Possible Global Negotiating Initiatives," CESifo Working Paper Series 1614, CESifo Group Munich.
  23. Surendra Gera & Samuel Laryea & Thitima Songsakul, 2005. "International Mobility of Skilled Labour: Analytical and Empirical Issues, and Research Priorities," International Trade 0507004, EconWPA.
  24. Jacques Poot, 2005. "Measuring the Economic Impact of Immigration: A Scoping Paper," Population Studies Centre Discussion Papers dp-48, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre.
  25. Bardhan, Ashok Deo & Kroll, Cynthia, 2003. "The New Wave of Outsourcing," Fisher Center for Real Estate & Urban Economics, Research Reports qt02f8z392, Fisher Center for Real Estate & Urban Economics, UC Berkeley.
  26. Martine Rutten, 2007. "The Economic Impact of Medical Migration: an Overview of the Literature," IIDE Discussion Papers 20070803, Institue for International and Development Economics.
  27. Dayaratna, Banda O.G. & Whalley, John, 2005. "Beyond Goods and Services: Competition Policy, Investment, Mutual Recognition, Movement of Persons, and Broader Cooperation Provisions of Recent FTAs Involving ASEAN Countries," Working Papers 24153, Canadian Agricultural Trade Policy Research Network.
  28. Kym Anderson & L. Alan Winters, 2009. "The Challenge of Reducing International Trade and Migration Barriers," School of Economics Working Papers 2009-10, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
  29. Liesbet Okkerse, 2008. "How To Measure Labour Market Effects Of Immigration: A Review," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 1-30, 02.
  30. Richard B. Freeman, 2006. "People Flows in Globalization," NBER Working Papers 12315, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Fritz Breuss, . "Macroeconomic Effects of EU Enlargement for Old and New Members," WIFO Working Papers 143, WIFO.
  32. Cowling, Keith & Tomlinson, Philip R., 2002. "The Problem Of Regional "Hollowing Out" In Japan : Lessons For Regional Industrial Policy," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 625, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  33. Kugler, Maurice & Rapoport, Hillel, 2007. "International labor and capital flows: Complements or substitutes?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 155-162, February.
  34. William J. Collins & Kevin H. O'Rourke & Jeffrey Williamson, 1997. "Were Trade and Factor Mobility Substitutes in History?," NBER Working Papers 6059, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  35. Gary Hufbauer & Sherry Stephenson, 2007. "Services Trade: Past Liberalization and Future Challenges," Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 605-630, September.
  36. Siow Yue CHIA, 2006. "Labor Mobility and East Asian Integration," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 1(2), pages 349-367.
  37. James E. Rauch & Vitor Trindade, 2002. "Ethnic Chinese Networks In International Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 116-130, February.
  38. Walmsley, Terri Louise & Winters, L. Alan, 2003. "Relaxing the Restrictions on the Temporary Movements of Natural Persons: A Simulation Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 3719, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  39. L. Alan Winters & Terrie L. Walmsley & Zhen Kun Wang & Roman Grynberg, 2003. "Liberalising Temporary Movement of Natural Persons: An Agenda for the Development Round," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(8), pages 1137-1161, 08.
  40. Jones, Ronald W., 2005. "Immigration vs. outsourcing: Effects on labor markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 105-114.
  41. Chaudhuri, Sumanta & Mattoo, Aaditya & Self, Richard, 2004. "Moving people to deliver services : how can the WTO help?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3238, The World Bank.
  42. Jacques Poot, 2007. "Demographic Change and Regional Competitiveness: The Effects of Immigration and Ageing," Population Studies Centre Discussion Papers dp-64, University of Waikato, Population Studies Centre.
  43. Philippa Dee & Kevin Hanslow, 2002. "Multilateral liberalisation of services trade," International Trade 0207002, EconWPA.
  44. Tatsufumi YAMAGATA, 2006. "Comment on "Labor Mobility and East Asian Integration"," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 1(2), pages 370-371.
  45. Lewis Evans & Arthur Grimes & Bryce Wilkinson, 1996. "Economic Reform in New Zealand 1984-95: The Pursuit of Efficiency," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(4), pages 1856-1902, December.
  46. Dunlevy, James A. & Hutchinson, William K., 1999. "The Impact of Immigration on American Import Trade in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 59(04), pages 1043-1062, December.
  47. Dunlevy, James A. & Hutchinson, William K., 2001. "The Pro-Trade Effect of Immigration on American Exports During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," IZA Discussion Papers 375, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  48. Williamson, Jeffrey G., 1996. "Globalization, Convergence, and History," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 56(02), pages 277-306, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wai:econwp:09/06. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Brian Silverstone)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.