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Productivity and Misallocation in General Equilibrium

Author

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  • David Baqaee

    (London School of Economics and Political)

  • Emmanuel Farhi

    (Harvard University)

Abstract

We provide a general non-parametric formula for aggregating microeconomic shocks in general equilibrium economies with distortions such as taxes, markups, frictions to resource reallocation, and nominal rigidities. We show that the macroeconomic impact of a shock can be boiled down into two components: its “pure” technology effect; and its effect on allocative efficiency arising from the associated reallocation of resources, which can be measured via changes in factor income shares. We also derive a formula showing how these two components are determined by structural microeconomic parameters such as elasticities of substitution, returns to scale, factor mobility, and network linkages. Overall, our results generalize those of Solow (1957) and Hulten (1978) to economies with distortions. To demonstrate their empirical relevance, we pursue different applications, focusing on markup distortions. For example, we operationalize our non-parametric results and show that improvements in allocative efficiency account for about 50% of measured TFP growth over the period 1997-2015. We also implement our structural results and conclude that eliminating markups would raise TFP by about 40%, increasing the economywide cost of monopoly distortions by two orders of magnitude compared to the famous 0.1% estimates of Harberger (1954).
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Suggested Citation

  • David Baqaee & Emmanuel Farhi, 2018. "Productivity and Misallocation in General Equilibrium," 2018 Meeting Papers 357, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed018:357
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Alessandra Bonfiglioli & Rosario Crinò & Gino Gancia, 2019. "Concentration in International Markets: Evidence from US Imports," Working Papers 883, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
    2. Yuichiro Matsumoto, 2018. "Endogenous Sunk Cost, Scale Economies, and Market Concentration," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 18-20, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics.
    3. de Ridder, Maarten, 2019. "Market power and innovation in the intangible economy," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 100946, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    4. Alessandra Bonfiglioli & Rosario Crinò & Gino Gancia, 2018. "Firms and Economic Performance: A View from Trade," Working Papers 1047, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    5. Emmanuel Dhyne & Glenn Magerman & Ayumu Ken kikkawa, 2019. "Imperfect Competition in Firm-to-Firm Trade," Working Papers ECARES 2019-05, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. Anthony Savagar, 2018. "Measured Productivity with Endogenous Markups and Economic Profits," Studies in Economics 1812, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    7. David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2018. "A Sufficient Statistics Approach for Aggregating Firm-Level Experiments," NBER Working Papers 24208, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Sophie Osotimehin, 2019. "Aggregate productivity and the allocation of resources over the business cycle," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 32, pages 180-205, April.
    9. David Rezza Baqaee & Emmanuel Farhi, 2018. "Macroeconomics with Heterogeneous Agents and Input-Output Networks," NBER Working Papers 24684, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Johannes Boehm & Ezra Oberfield, 2018. "Misallocation in the Market for Inputs: Enforcement and the Organization of Production," CEP Discussion Papers dp1572, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    11. Jorge Miranda-Pinto & Eric R. Young, 2018. "Flexibility and frictions in multisector models," CAMA Working Papers 2018-24, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    12. Masuch, Klaus & Anderton, Robert & Setzer, Ralph & Benalal, Nicholai, 2018. "Structural policies in the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 210, European Central Bank.
    13. Cédric Duprez & Glenn Magerman, 2019. "Price Updating with Production Networks," Working Papers ECARES 2019-07, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    14. Sophie Osotimehin, 2019. "Aggregate productivity and the allocation of resources over the business cycle," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 32, pages 180-205, April.
    15. Cedric Duprez & Glenn Magerman, 2018. "Price Updating in Production Networks," Working Paper Research 352, National Bank of Belgium.
    16. Aquilante, Tommaso & Chowla, Shiv & Dacic, Nikola & Haldane, Andrew & Masolo, Riccardo & Schneider, Patrick & Seneca, Martin & Tatomir, Srdan, 2019. "Market power and monetary policy," Bank of England working papers 798, Bank of England.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • D33 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Factor Income Distribution
    • D42 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Monopoly
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • D5 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
    • D50 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - General
    • D57 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Input-Output Tables and Analysis
    • D61 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Allocative Efficiency; Cost-Benefit Analysis
    • E01 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth; Environmental Accounts
    • E1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models
    • E2 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

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