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Distortions in Production Networks

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  • Saki Bigio
  • Jennifer La’O

Abstract

How does an economy's production structure determine its macroeconomic response to sectoral distortions? We study a static framework in which production is organized in an input-output network and firms' production decisions are distorted. We show how sectoral distortions manifest at the aggregate level via two channels: total factor productivity and the labor wedge. The strength of each channel depends jointly on the input-output structure and the distribution of shocks. Near efficiency, distortions generate zero first-order effects on TFP but non-zero first-order effects on the labor wedge; the latter we show to be determined by the sector's network "centrality." We apply the model to the 2008-09 Financial Crisis and find that the U.S. input-ouput network may have amplified financial distortions by roughly a factor of two relative to a counterfactual economy devoid of intermediate good trade.

Suggested Citation

  • Saki Bigio & Jennifer La’O, 2016. "Distortions in Production Networks," NBER Working Papers 22212, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22212
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lo Turco, Alessia & Maggioni, Daniela & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2019. "Financial dependence and growth: The role of input-output linkages," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 308-328.
    2. Michael Weber & Ali Ozdagli, 2016. "Monetary Policy Through Production Networks: Evidence from the Stock Market," 2016 Meeting Papers 148, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    3. David Rezza Baqaee & Emmanuel Farhi, 2019. "The Macroeconomic Impact of Microeconomic Shocks: Beyond Hulten's Theorem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 87(4), pages 1155-1203, July.
    4. Alfaro, Laura & García-Santana, Manuel & Moral-Benito, Enrique, 2021. "On the direct and indirect real effects of credit supply shocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 139(3), pages 895-921.
    5. Lorenzo Caliendo & Fernando Parro & Aleh Tsyvinski, 2017. "Distortions and the Structure of the World Economy," NBER Working Papers 23332, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Magne Mogstad & Emmanuel Dhyne & Ayumu Kikkawa & Felix Tintelnot, 2017. "Trade and Domestic Production Networks," 2017 Meeting Papers 381, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    7. Zetlin-Jones, Ariel & Shourideh, Ali, 2017. "External financing and the role of financial frictions over the business cycle: Measurement and theory," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 1-15.
    8. Yuwan Duan & Yanping Zhao & Jakob Haan, 2020. "Exchange Rate Pass-through in China: A Cost-Push Input-Output Price Model," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 513-528, July.
    9. David Rezza Baqaee & Emmanuel Farhi, 2018. "Macroeconomics with Heterogeneous Agents and Input-Output Networks," NBER Working Papers 24684, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. David Rezza Baqaee & Emmanuel Farhi, 2020. "Productivity and Misallocation in General Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 135(1), pages 105-163.
    11. Sophie Osotimehin & Latchezar Popov, 2018. "Misallocation and intersectoral linkages," 2018 Meeting Papers 561, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    12. Jannati, Sima & Korniotis, George & Kumar, Alok, 2020. "Big fish in a small pond: Locally dominant firms and the business cycle," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 180(C), pages 219-240.
    13. Raffaele Giammetti, 2019. "Tariffs, Domestic Import Substitution and Trade Diversion in Input-Output Production Networks: how to deal with Brexit," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 152, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    14. Dong, Feng & Wen, Yi, 2019. "Long and Plosser meet Bewley and Lucas," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 70-92.
    15. Johannes Boehm & Ezra Oberfield, 2020. "Misallocation in the Market for Inputs: Enforcement and the Organization of Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 135(4), pages 2007-2058.
    16. Giammetti, Raffaele, 2019. "Tariffs, Domestic Import Substitution and Trade Diversion in Input-Output Production Networks: how to deal with Brexit," MPRA Paper 92835, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Jason Choi & Andrew T. Foerster, 2017. "The Changing Input-Output Network Structure of the U.S. Economy," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 23-49.
    18. Daron Acemoglu & Pablo D. Azar, 2020. "Endogenous Production Networks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 88(1), pages 33-82, January.
    19. David Rezza Baqaee, 2018. "Cascading Failures in Production Networks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 86(5), pages 1819-1838, September.
    20. Ernesto Pasten & Raphael Schoenle & Michael Weber, 2017. "Price Rigidity and the Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 23750, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Miranda-Pinto, Jorge, 2018. "A note on optimal sectoral policies in production networks," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 152-156.
    22. Ernesto Pasten & Raphael S. Schoenle & Michael Weber & Michael Weber, 2017. "Price Rigidities and the Granular Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," CESifo Working Paper Series 6619, CESifo.
    23. Jiangtao FU & Petr MATOUS & TODO Yasuyuki, 2018. "Trade Credit in Global Supply Chains," Discussion papers 18049, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    24. Yukiko Saito & Makoto Nirei & Vasco Carvalho, 2014. "Supply Chain Disruptions: Evidence from Great East Japan Earthquake," 2014 Meeting Papers 595, Society for Economic Dynamics.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)

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