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The Effect of Trade Liberalization on Expenditure Structure of Pakistan

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  • Ahmad, Khalil
  • Ali, Amjad

Abstract

Demand side public policy plays a risk reducing role for imperfect sectors of the developing economies through public investment during liberalization. Public sector investment, composition and structure play an important role to determine the comparative advantage for the productive sector. This study explores the effect of trade liberalization and trade tax revenue on the expenditure structure of Pakistan during 1975-2016. Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach has been used for examining the long run co-integration among the expenditure structure and trade liberalization and Vector Error-Correction model is used for short run dynamics of the concerned variables. The empirical result shows that trade tax revenue has a positive impact on the expenditure structure in the long run but not in the short run. Trade liberalization, budget deficits and defense expenditure have negative associations with expenditure structure.

Suggested Citation

  • Ahmad, Khalil & Ali, Amjad, 2019. "The Effect of Trade Liberalization on Expenditure Structure of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 95665, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:95665
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    Cited by:

    1. Marc Audi & Fiaz Ahmad Sulehri & Amjad Ali & Razan Al-Masri, 2022. "An Event Based Analysis of Stock Return and Political Uncertainty in Pakistan: Revisited," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 12(5), pages 39-56, September.
    2. Khalil Ahmad & Amjad Ali & Michael Yang, 2022. "The Effect Of Trade Liberalization On Expenditure Structure Of Pakistan," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 11(1), pages 73-84, March.
    3. Anum Shafique & Mehmood Ul Hassan & Akmal Shahzad & Qazi Muhammad Ali & Muhammad Saqlain, 2022. "Exchange Rate Volatility And Its Relationship With Macroeconomic Variables In Pakistan," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 11(1), pages 121-131, March.
    4. Alim, Wajid & Ali, Amjad & Minhas, Amna Shafiq, 2022. "The Impact of Leverage on the Firm Performance: A Case of Fertilizers Sector of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 114200, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Average Tariff rate; Trade Tax Revenue; Expenditure Structure;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • H71 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

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