IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/ijr/journl/v1y2013i1p1-14.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Disaggregated Import Demand Function: A Case Study of Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Amjad Ali

    () (School of Social Sciences, National College of Business Administration & Economics, 40/E-1, Gulberg III, Lahore-54660, Pakistan)

  • Muhammad Irfan Chani

    () (School of Social Sciences, National College of Business Administration & Economics, 40/E-1, Gulberg III, Lahore-54660, Pakistan)

Abstract

Purpose: This study investigates the income and price elasticities of disaggregated import demand function in case of Pakistan. Methodology: This paper applies the ARDL bound testing approach to co-integration over the time span of 1972-2009. Findings: Our empirical findings show that there exists long run relationship among the variables. The impact of real GDP on import demand of food items is positive. The impact of real GDP on import demand of raw material is positive. The effect of real GDP on import demand of fuel lightening and lubricants items group is positive. The impact of relative price on import demand of fuel lightening and lubricants items group is negative. The effect of real GDP on import demand of manufactured items group is positive but the impact of relative price is negative. Fuel lightening and lubricants items and manufactured items are highly price elastic, while food items and raw material items are price inelastic. Overall results of all the four models indicate that fuel lightening and lubricants items group is more income elastic as compared to the other commodity groups, and the manufactured items group is more price elastic as compared to the other commodity groups. This study also confirms that import demand of all the commodity groups are highly sensitive to change in real GDP. Recommendations: The government should try to invest on high-tech industry so that in long run imported goods demand may be controlled.

Suggested Citation

  • Amjad Ali & Muhammad Irfan Chani, 2013. "Disaggregated Import Demand Function: A Case Study of Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 1(1), pages 1-14, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:ijr:journl:v:1:y:2013:i:1:p:1-14
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://tesdo.org/shared/upload/pdf/papers/IJEER,%201_1_,%201-14.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://tesdo.org/journal_detail.php?paper_id=39&expand_year=2013
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Amelia Santos-Paulino & A. P. Thirlwall, 2004. "The impact of trade liberalisation on exports, imports and the balance of payments of developing countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages 50-72, February.
    2. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Orhan Kara, 2003. "Relative Responsiveness of Trade Flows to a Change in Prices and Exchange Rate," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 293-308.
    3. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    4. Khan, Mohsin S, 1975. "The Structure and Behavior of Imports of Venezuela," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 57(2), pages 221-224, May.
    5. Sarmad, Khwaja, 1989. "The determinants of import demand in Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(10), pages 1619-1625, October.
    6. Carmen M. Reinhart, 1995. "Devaluation, Relative Prices, and International Trade: Evidence from Developing Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(2), pages 290-312, June.
    7. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    8. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    9. repec:syd:wpaper:9703 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
    11. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
    12. Charalambos Pattichis, 1999. "Price and income elasticities of disaggregated import demand: results from UECMs and an application," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(9), pages 1061-1071.
    13. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    14. Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Abera Gelan, 2007. "On the Relation between Nominal Devaluation and Real Devaluation: Evidence from African Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 16(2), pages 177-197, March.
    15. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    16. Khan , Shahrukh R. & Aftab, Safiya, 1996. "Devaluation and the Balance of Trade: A Policy Analysis for Pakistan," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 49(2), pages 247-260.
    17. James Laurenceson & Joseph C.H. Chai, 2003. "Financial Reform and Economic Development in China," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2714.
    18. Mah, Jai S., 2000. "An empirical examination of the disaggregated import demand of Korea--the case of information technology products," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 237-244.
    19. Isard, Peter, 1977. "How Far Can We Push the "Law of One Price"?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(5), pages 942-948, December.
    20. Houthakker, Hendrik S & Magee, Stephen P, 1969. "Income and Price Elasticities in World Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(2), pages 111-125, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ahmad, Khalil & Ali, Amjad, 2019. "The Effect of Trade Liberalization on Expenditure Structure of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 95665, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Muhammad Wasif Siddiqi & Amjad Ali & Muhammad Irfan Chani, 2014. "Import Demand, Economic Development and Trade Liberalization in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 3(2), pages 131-141, June.
    3. Olabisi Olabode Eric, 2015. "Trade Liberalization and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Do Concern Matters?," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(6), pages 306-311, June.
    4. Ahmad, Khalil & Ali, Safdar & Ali, Amjad, 2018. "Trade Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 87529, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Sonia Liaqat & Muhammad Irfan Chani, 2018. "The Impact of Exports Diversification on Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(4), pages 156-168, December.
    6. Moqeet Ahmed & Ahmed Imran Hunjra & Muhammad Kashif Iqbal & Jibran Khalil, 2014. "Impact of Foreign Direct Investment, Imports, Exports of Goods and Services on Economic Growth of Pakistan," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 3(3), pages 155-165, September.
    7. Zeshan Arshad & Saba Mukhtar & Amina Bibi & Azeema Zia, 2015. "Imports and Exports of Pakistan Time Series (1970-2013)," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(10), pages 473-478, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Demand function; ARDL bounds testing; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ijr:journl:v:1:y:2013:i:1:p:1-14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz (PhD Applied Economics)). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/tesdopk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.