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The long run relationship between openness and government size: evidence from bounds test

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  • Muhammad Islam

Abstract

The bounds test is applied to determine the existence of a level relationship between government size, openness, terms of trade volatility, and external risk using time series data from Australia, Canada, England, Norway, Sweden, and the USA. Bounds test results show that the existence of a long run relationship in the USA and Canada, but not in any of the other countries. Long run parameters are estimated using both autoregressive distributed lag and FM-OLS procedures. Results vary from country to country, with some evidence that government size is significantly affected by openness and terms of trade volatility. However, contrary to argument and evidence developed using cross-section data, empirical evidence presented in this paper show that the size of the government has not changed to mitigate the effect of increased income risks associated with greater openness.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Islam, 2004. "The long run relationship between openness and government size: evidence from bounds test," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 995-1000.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:36:y:2004:i:9:p:995-1000
    DOI: 10.1080/0003684042000233221
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    Cited by:

    1. Sáenz Rodríguez, Estela & Sabaté Sort, Marcela & Gadea Rivas, María Dolores, 2009. "La medición del riesgo externo. Un estudio aplicado al caso español en el periodo 1960-2000/The Measurement of External Risk. An Applied Study to the Spanish Case in the Period 1960-2000," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 27, pages 575(16á)-57, Agosto.
    2. Paolo Epifani & Gino Gancia, 2005. "On Globalization and the Growth of Governments," Working Papers 267, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    3. Paolo Epifani & Gino Gancia, 2009. "Openness, Government Size and the Terms of Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(2), pages 629-668.
    4. Liberati, Paolo, 2007. "Trade Openness, Capital Openness and Government Size," Journal of Public Policy, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(02), pages 215-247, August.
    5. Ikechukwu D. NWAKA & Stephen T. ONIFADE, 2015. "Government Size, Openness and Income Risk Nexus: New Evidence from Some African Countries," Working Papers 15/056, African Governance and Development Institute..
    6. Ansgar Belke & Thorsten Polleit, 2006. "Monetary policy and dividend growth in Germany: long-run structural modelling versus bounds testing approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(12), pages 1409-1423.
    7. Muhammad Zakaria & Samreen Shakoor, 2011. "Relationship Between Government Size and Trade Openness: Evidence from Pakistan," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 18(2), pages 328-341, December.
    8. Taofik Mohammed Ibrahim, 2015. "The causal link between Trade Openness and Government Size: Evidence from the five largest economies in Africa," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 8(1), pages 121-136, August.
    9. Benarroch, Michael & Pandey, Manish, 2008. "Trade openness and government size," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 157-159, December.
    10. Ansgar Belke & Thorsten Polleit, 2006. "Dividend Yields for Forecasting Stock Market Returns. An ARDL Cointegration Analysis for Germany," Ekonomia, Cyprus Economic Society and University of Cyprus, vol. 9(1), pages 86-116, Summer.
    11. Estela Sáenz & María Dolores Gadea & Marcela Sabaté, 2009. "Measuring the external risk in the United Kingdom," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 1182-1189.
    12. Francesca Gastaldi & Paolo Liberati, 2011. "Economic integration and government size: a review of the empirical literature," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 35(3), pages 327-384.
    13. Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui & Puah, Chin-Hong & Wong, Chiew-Meu, 2008. "Bounds Estimation for Trade Openness and Government Expenditure Nexus of ASEAN-4 Countries," MPRA Paper 12351, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Benarroch, Michael & Pandey, Manish, 2012. "The relationship between trade openness and government size: Does disaggregating government expenditure matter?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 239-252.

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