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Financial Development, Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from ARDL Approach for Pakistan


  • Muhammad, Shahbaz
  • Faridul, Islam
  • Muhammad Sabihuddin, Butt


The paper explores the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions, financial development, economic growth, energy consumption, and population growth in Pakistan. ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration is implemented to the data for 1974-2009. The results confirm a long run relation among these variables. Financial development appears to help reduce CO2 emissions. The main contributors to CO2 emissions however are: economic growth, population growth and energy consumption. Our results also lend support to the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Based on the findings we argue that policy focus on financial development might be helpful in reducing environmental degradation.

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  • Muhammad, Shahbaz & Faridul, Islam & Muhammad Sabihuddin, Butt, 2011. "Financial Development, Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from ARDL Approach for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 30138, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Apr 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30138

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    Cited by:

    1. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2010. "Does financial instability increase environmental pollution in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 31360, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 28 Mar 2011.
    2. Shu-Chen Chang, 2015. "Threshold effect of foreign direct investment on environmental degradation," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 14(1), pages 75-102, December.
    3. Sehar Munir & Azra Khan, 2014. "Impact of Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Pakistan (1980-2010)," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 53(4), pages 327-346.
    4. Chang, Shu-Chen, 2015. "Effects of financial developments and income on energy consumption," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 28-44.

    More about this item


    Financial Development; CO2 Emissions; Cointegration;

    JEL classification:

    • A10 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - General

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