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Threshold effect of foreign direct investment on environmental degradation

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  • Shu-Chen Chang

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to investigate the threshold effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on environmental degradation. In empirical analysis, FDI and environmental degradation are jointly determined under the given threshold variable and other exogenous variables. Using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions per capita as a proxy for environmental degradation, the results show that increasing FDI worsens CO 2 emissions after a threshold level of corruption has been reached. Our results demonstrate that increasing FDI will increase CO 2 emissions when the degree of corruptibility is relatively high. The study suggests that further FDI and improved environmental quality are competing rather than compatible objectives in high-corruption countries and are compatible rather than competing objectives in low-corruption countries. Higher trade liberalization in low-corruption countries could contribute to negative environmental consequences because of the increased output or economic activity which results from increased trade. The robustness estimation confirms the evidence that pollution and economic development increase together up to a certain income level, after which the trend reverses. Copyright ISEG 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Shu-Chen Chang, 2015. "Threshold effect of foreign direct investment on environmental degradation," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 14(1), pages 75-102, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:portec:v:14:y:2015:i:1:p:75-102
    DOI: 10.1007/s10258-015-0112-3
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    Cited by:

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    2. Adeel-Farooq, Rana Muhammad & Riaz, Muhammad Faraz & Ali, Tariq, 2021. "Improving the environment begins at home: Revisiting the links between FDI and environment," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 215(PB).
    3. Farzan Yahya & Muhammad Rafiq, 2020. "Brownfield, greenfield, and renewable energy consumption: Moderating role of effective governance," Energy & Environment, , vol. 31(3), pages 405-423, May.
    4. Nor Aznin Abu Bakar & Jimoh Olajide Raji & Rana Muhammad Adeel-Farooq, 2019. "Greenfield, Mergers & Acquisitions, Energy Consumption, and Environmental Performance in selected SAARC and ASEAN countries," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(2), pages 216-224.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    CO 2 emissions; Environmental degradation; Foreign direct investment; Threshold models; O1; Q4;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy

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