IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/oec/ecoaaa/1077-en.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Deleveraging: Challenges, Progress and Policies

Author

Listed:
  • Romain Bouis

    (OECD)

  • Ane Kathrine Christensen

    (OECD)

  • Boris Cournède

    (OECD)

Abstract

In the run-up to the financial crisis, indebtedness of households and non-financial businesses rose to historically high levels in many OECD countries; gross debt of financial companies rose dramatically relative to GDP. Much of the debt accumulation appears to have been based on excessive risk-taking and exceptional macro-economic conditions and therefore not sustainable. Since the start of the crisis, non-financial private sector debt has receded substantially in the United States and the United Kingdom. Other OECD countries have not experienced significant debt reduction but already achieved some adjustment in terms of private saving and investment (with the seeming contradiction between these two observations explained by the private sector accumulating gross financial assets at a faster pace). Some macro-economic risks related to future household deleveraging nevertheless remain in a few OECD countries where indebtedness has risen in recent years. In the financial sector, possible future deleveraging will be more damaging to growth if it involves reducing assets rather than retaining (or raising) equity. To speed up the deleveraging process and minimising its impact on prosperity, bad loans should be recognised swiftly, losses taken, insolvent banks wound down orderly and capital shortfalls plugged at still solvent banks. Désendettement: enjeux, progrès et politiques économiques Dans la période qui a précédé la crise, l’endettement des ménages et des entreprises non financières a augmenté jusqu’à des niveaux historiquement élevés dans de nombreux pays de l’OCDE. La dette brute des entreprises financières s’est accrue de manière spectaculaire par rapport au PIB. Une grande part de cet endettement, qui semble avoir été la contrepartie d’une prise de risque excessive dans un environnement macro-économique exceptionnellement favorable, ne paraît pas soutenable. Depuis le commencement de la crise, la dette du secteur privé non financier a reculé aux États-Unis et au Royaume-Uni. Aucune réduction significative de l’endettement n’a été observée dans plusieurs autres pays de l’OCDE qui ont toutefois effectué une part d’ajustement en termes d’épargne privée et d’investissement immobilier. La contradiction apparente entre ces deux observations s’explique dans ces pays par une accélération de l’acquisition d’actifs financiers bruts par le secteur privé. La possibilité d’un désendettement des ménages continue néanmoins de faire peser un risque macroéconomique sur certains pays de l’OCDE qui ont connu une augmentation de l’endettement au cours des dernières années. S’agissant du secteur financier, une éventuelle baisse du ratio d’endettement sera plus dommageable à la croissance si elle se produit au moyen de réductions d’actifs plutôt que par l’accumulation de capital. Afin d’accélérer le processus de réduction de l’effet de levier et de réduire ses conséquences défavorables pour la prospérité économique, il convient d’identifier rapidement les prêts improductifs, de comptabiliser les pertes qui leur sont associées, de liquider les banques non solvables et de combler les besoins en capital des banques qui demeurent solvables.

Suggested Citation

  • Romain Bouis & Ane Kathrine Christensen & Boris Cournède, 2013. "Deleveraging: Challenges, Progress and Policies," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1077, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:1077-en
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k4221459fjc-en
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Russell, Bill, 2011. "Non-stationary inflation and panel estimates of United States short and long-run Phillips curves," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 406-419, September.
    2. Orphanides, Athanasios & Wieland, Volker, 2000. "Efficient Monetary Policy Design near Price Stability," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 327-365, December.
    3. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Galí, 2010. "Labor Markets and Monetary Policy: A New Keynesian Model with Unemployment," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 1-30, April.
    4. Athanasios Orphanides & Simon van Norden, 2002. "The Unreliability of Output-Gap Estimates in Real Time," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 569-583, November.
    5. Jesse Rothstein, 2011. "Unemployment Insurance and Job Search in the Great Recession," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 42(2 (Fall)), pages 143-213.
    6. Stephen Cecchetti & Madhusudan Mohanty & Fabrizio Zampolli, 2011. "The real effects of debt," BIS Working Papers 352, Bank for International Settlements.
    7. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2010. "Growth in a Time of Debt," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 573-578, May.
    8. Davide Furceri & Annabelle Mourougane, 2012. "How Do Institutions Affect Structural Unemployment in Times of Crises?," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 59(4), pages 393-419, September.
    9. Prachowny, Martin F J, 1993. "Okun's Law: Theoretical Foundations and Revised Estimates," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(2), pages 331-336, May.
    10. Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam, 2012. "Negative equity does not reduce homeowners’ mobility," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Feb, pages 1-17.
    11. Olivier Blanchard & Jordi Galí, 2007. "Real Wage Rigidities and the New Keynesian Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(s1), pages 35-65, February.
    12. Pierre-Olivier Beffy & Patrice Ollivaud & Pete Richardson & Franck Sédillot, 2006. "New OECD Methods for Supply-side and Medium-term Assessments: A Capital Services Approach," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 482, OECD Publishing.
    13. Rossana Merola & Douglas Sutherland, 2012. "Fiscal Consolidation: Part 3. Long-Run Projections and Fiscal Gap Calculations," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 934, OECD Publishing.
    14. Lee, Jim, 2000. "The Robustness of Okun's Law: Evidence from OECD Countries," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 331-356, April.
    15. Frank Smets, 2002. "Output gap uncertainty: Does it matter for the Taylor rule?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 113-129.
    16. Fernando Ferreira & Joseph Gyourko & Joseph Tracy, 2012. "Housing busts and household mobility: an update," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Nov, pages 1-15.
    17. Balázs Égert, 2014. "Fiscal policy reaction to the cycle in the OECD: pro- or counter-cyclical?," Mondes en développement, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(3), pages 35-52.
    18. Rudiger Ahrend & Boris Cournède & Robert W. R. Price, 2008. "Monetary Policy, Market Excesses and Financial Turmoil," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 597, OECD Publishing.
    19. Borio, Claudio, 2006. "Monetary and financial stability: Here to stay?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 3407-3414, December.
    20. Romain Duval & Mehmet Eris & Davide Furceri, 2011. "The Effects of Downturns on Labour Force Participation: Evidence and Causes," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 875, OECD Publishing.
    21. Daniel Aaronson & Bhashkar Mazumder & Shani Schechter, 2010. "What is behind the rise in long-term unemployment?," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 28-51.
    22. Dominique Guellec & Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, 2009. "Policy Responses to the Economic Crisis: Investing in Innovation for Long-Term Growth," OECD Digital Economy Papers 159, OECD Publishing.
    23. Silvia Sgherri & Hanan Morsy, 2010. "After the Crisis; Assessing the Damage in Italy," IMF Working Papers 10/244, International Monetary Fund.
    24. Marcello M. Estevão & Evridiki Tsounta, 2010. "Canada's Potential Growth; Another Victim of the Crisis?," IMF Working Papers 10/13, International Monetary Fund.
    25. Romain Bouis & Orsetta Causa & Lilas Demmou & Romain Duval & Aleksandra Zdzienicka, 2012. "The Short-Term Effects of Structural Reforms: An Empirical Analysis," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 949, OECD Publishing.
    26. Diego Moccero & Shingo Watanabe & Boris Cournède, 2011. "What Drives Inflation in the Major OECD Economies?," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 854, OECD Publishing.
    27. David Turner & Francesca Spinelli, 2011. "Explaining the Interest-Rate-Growth Differential Underlying Government Debt Dynamics," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 919, OECD Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Vratilav Izák, 2014. "Private and Public Debt," European Financial and Accounting Journal, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2014(1).
    2. Christophe André, 2016. "Household debt in OECD countries: stylised facts and policy issues," Chapters from NBP Conference Publications, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
    3. Douglas Sutherland & Peter Hoeller & Rossana Merola & Volker Ziemann, 2012. "Debt and Macroeconomic Stability," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1003, OECD Publishing.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    crédits en souffrance; deleveraging; dette des entreprises non financières; dette du secteur des entreprises financières; financial regulation; financial sector debt; household debt; household saving; housing prices; investissement immobilier résidentiel; non-financial corporation debt; non-performing loans; prix de l'immobilier d'habitation; prix des logements; prêts non productifs; residential investment; réduction de l’effet de levier; épargne des ménages;

    JEL classification:

    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:1077-en. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/edoecfr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.