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Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS

Author

Listed:
  • Melinda Adnot
  • Thomas Dee
  • Veronica Katz
  • James Wyckoff

Abstract

In practice, teacher turnover appears to have negative effects on school quality as measured by student performance. However, some simulations suggest that turnover can instead have large, positive effects under a policy regime in which low-performing teachers can be accurately identified and replaced with more effective teachers. This study examines this question by evaluating the effects of teacher turnover on student achievement under IMPACT, the unique performance-assessment and incentive system in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS). Employing a quasi-experimental design based on data from the first year years of IMPACT, we find that, on average, DCPS replaced teachers who left with teachers who increased student achievement by 0.08 SD in math. When we isolate the effects of lower-performing teachers who were induced to leave DCPS for poor performance, we find that student achievement improves by larger and statistically significant amounts (i.e., 0.14 SD in reading and 0.21 SD in math). In contrast, the effect of exits by teachers not sanctioned under IMPACT is typically negative but not statistically significant.

Suggested Citation

  • Melinda Adnot & Thomas Dee & Veronica Katz & James Wyckoff, 2016. "Teacher Turnover, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement in DCPS," NBER Working Papers 21922, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:21922 Note: CH ED
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Steven G. Rivkin & Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain, 2005. "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(2), pages 417-458, March.
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    3. Jesse Rothstein, 2015. "Teacher Quality Policy When Supply Matters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(1), pages 100-130, January.
    4. Don Boyd & Hamp Lankford & Susanna Loeb & Matthew Ronfeldt & Jim Wyckoff, 2011. "The role of teacher quality in retention and hiring: Using applications to transfer to uncover preferences of teachers and schools," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(1), pages 88-110, December.
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    6. Dan Goldhaber & Betheny Gross & Daniel Player, 2011. "Teacher career paths, teacher quality, and persistence in the classroom: Are public schools keeping their best?," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(1), pages 57-87, December.
    7. Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Jonah E. Rockoff, 2014. "Measuring the Impacts of Teachers I: Evaluating Bias in Teacher Value-Added Estimates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(9), pages 2593-2632, September.
    8. Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Jonah E. Rockoff, 2014. "Measuring the Impacts of Teachers II: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(9), pages 2633-2679, September.
    9. Eric Isenberg & Jeffrey Max & Philip Gleason & Liz Potamites & Robert Santillano & Heinrich Hock & Michael Hansen, 2013. "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students (Issue Brief)," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 12ee9a28e7b341039dae2f013, Mathematica Policy Research.
    10. Eric Isenberg & Jeffrey Max & Philip Gleason & Liz Potamites & Robert Santillano & Heinrich Hock & Michael Hansen, 2013. "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students (Executive Summary)," Mathematica Policy Research Reports fe48f5034334401c9d2db4a78, Mathematica Policy Research.
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    12. Jonah E. Rockoff & Brian A. Jacob & Thomas J. Kane & Douglas O. Staiger, 2011. "Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One?," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 6(1), pages 43-74, January.
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    15. Dan Goldhaber & Betheny Gross & Daniel Player, 2011. "Teacher Career Paths Teacher Quality and Persistence in the Classroom Are Public Schools Keeping Their Best," Mathematica Policy Research Reports bb09428c3d22459dbbbaa543a, Mathematica Policy Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cullen Julie Berry & Cory Koedel & Eric Parsons, 2016. "The Compositional Effect of Rigorous Teacher Evaluation on Workforce Quality," CESifo Working Paper Series 6185, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Cory Koedel & Jiaxi Li & Matthew G. Springer & Li Tan, 2016. "The Impact of Performance Ratings on Job Satisfaction for Public School Teachers," Working Papers 1617, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
    3. Brian Jacob & Jonah E. Rockoff & Eric S. Taylor & Benjamin Lindy & Rachel Rosen, 2016. "Teacher Applicant Hiring and Teacher Performance: Evidence from DC Public Schools," NBER Working Papers 22054, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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    JEL classification:

    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education

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