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Market Design in Cap and Trade Programs: Permit Validity and Compliance Timing

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  • Stephen P. Holland
  • Michael R. Moore

Abstract

Cap and trade programs have considerable heterogeneity in permit validity and compliance timing. For example, permits have different validity across time (e.g., banking, borrowing, and seasons) and space (e.g., zonal restrictions), and compliance timing can be annual, in overlapping cycles, or in multi-year periods. We compare and contrast nine prominent cap and trade programs along these dimensions and construct a general model of permit validity and compliance timing. We derive sufficient conditions under which abatement is invariant to compliance timing, i.e., compliance timing cannot smooth abatement cost shocks. Under these conditions, i) expected compliance costs are invariant, ii) the variance of compliance costs increases with delayed compliance, iii) equilibrium prices may not be unique, and iv) the delayed compliance equilibrium may rely upon non-unique, "degenerate" prices not determined by marginal abatement costs. Degenerate prices are unlikely to be discovered by market forces. We then present two examples which are not invariant to compliance timing. If permit allocation is delayed or if a price cap is implemented with a reserve fund, abatement may depend on compliance timing. We demonstrate the model's broad applicability by illustrating different types of temporal and spatial permit validity.

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  • Stephen P. Holland & Michael R. Moore, 2012. "Market Design in Cap and Trade Programs: Permit Validity and Compliance Timing," NBER Working Papers 18098, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18098
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    Cited by:

    1. Yu, Jongmin & Mallory, Mindy L., 2015. "An optimal hybrid emission control system in a multiple compliance period model," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 16-28.
    2. Holland, Stephen P. & Moore, Michael R., 2013. "Market design in cap and trade programs: Permit validity and compliance timing," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 671-687.
    3. Lade, Gabriel & Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia & Smith, Aaron, 2014. "Policy Uncertainty under Market-Based Regulations: Evidence from the Renewable Fuel Standard," 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota 170673, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    4. Hasegawa, Makoto & Salant, Stephen, 2014. "Cap-and-trade programs under delayed compliance: Consequences of interim injections of permits," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 24-34.
    5. Singh, Rajesh & Weninger, Quinn, 2015. "Harvest efficiency and fishery discards under harvest uncertainty and trading restrictions," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 72-91.
    6. repec:eee:appene:v:204:y:2017:i:c:p:607-619 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:kap:itaxpf:v:24:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1007_s10797-017-9439-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Hasegawa, Makoto & Salant, Stephen, 2012. "Cap-and-Trade Programs under Delayed Compliance," Discussion Papers dp-12-32, Resources For the Future.
    9. Makoto Hasegawa & Stephen Salant, 2015. "The Dynamics of Pollution Permits," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 61-79, October.
    10. repec:eee:eecrev:v:101:y:2018:i:c:p:397-417 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Benjamin Leard, 2013. "The Welfare Effects of Allowance Banking in Emissions Trading Programs," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 55(2), pages 175-197, June.
    12. Gabriel E. Lade & C.Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell & Aaron Smith, 2016. "Policy Shocks and Market-Based Regulations: Evidence from the Renewable Fuel Standard," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 16-wp565, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.

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    JEL classification:

    • H4 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics

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