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HIV prevalence and poverty in Africa : micro and macro-econometric evidence applied to Burkina Faso


  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    () (GED, Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV)


Based on the data of the Demographic and Health Survey, and of the Household Priority Survey, carried out in 2003, the present study, examining the factors of the HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso, provides two conclusions. Firstly, the fight against poverty is not necessarily a means of reducing at the same time in a drastic way the HIV/AIDS prevalence, an assertion based on several elements of empirical analysis. First of all, the concentration curve, measuring the « socioeconomic » inequality of the seroprevalence, is « pro-poor ». Then, the micro-econometric estimates of the probit models suggest a positive relation between the HIV prevalence of the adult women and men, and the standard of living of the individuals. At the same time, the probit models highlight a probability of HIV prevalence increasing with : (i) the age, and ; (ii) the localization in Ouagadougou, the capital, and in the majority of the areas of the west and south-west of the country, compared to the other zones. On the other hand, the sexual relations with condoms reduce the chances of seroprevalence, an effect growing with the wealth of the households. Lastly, the macro-econometric approach reveals the existence of a positive (negative) relation between, on the one hand, the level of the regional HIV prevalence, and, on the other hand, the average monetary provincial standard of living (the poverty) of the households. At the same time, the relation between the HIV prevalence and the poverty, apprehended at the regional level, is not linear. Moreover, the estimate of the spatial econometrics models indicates an impact of the crisis of Côte d’Ivoire on the HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso, consecutively with the massive return of a large number of refugees, displaced or repatriated persons originating from Côte d’Ivoire – in particular, since 2000 –, country where the seroprevalence is, on average, five times higher than in Burkina Faso. Secondly, and correlatively, the relation between the HIV prevalence and poverty is questioned. First of all, some structural factors could contribute to skew the relation between the resources of the households and the prevalence of the HIV/AIDS. On the one hand, the persistence of cognitive and behavioral factors inherent to the traditional society, in spite of the high rate of economic growth per capita which prevailed during two last decades. In particular, the social construction of the female attributes and roles confers to men a statute of « decision-makers » with regard to the sexual intercourse, while the persistence of the secular beliefs contributes to minimize the perception of the HIV/SIDA in terms of risks, independently of the standard of living. In addition, the two geographical subsets where the HIV prevalence is higher than the national average, tend to have higher regional averages per capita expenditure, compared to the other zones. In addition, the enclavement of Burkina Faso required a development of the road and railway traffic with the countries bordering, in particular Côte d’Ivoire. So, it may be that the structural conditions of the process of development of Burkina Faso, concomitant with significant flows of exchange of goods, services and labour with a country where the prevalence of the HIV is particularly high, constitute an element of explanation of the positive relation between the resources of the households and the HIV seroprevalence. Then, factors related to the conjuncture probably contributed to reinforce the opposite relation between the HIV seroprevalence and poverty, the macro-econometric analysis highlighting a direct relation between the massive return of the migrants of Côte d'Ivoire and the level of HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso. (Full text in english)

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2005. "HIV prevalence and poverty in Africa : micro and macro-econometric evidence applied to Burkina Faso," Documents de travail 113, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  • Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:113

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. E. Stillwaggon, 2002. "HIV/AIDS in Africa: Fertile Terrain," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 1-22.
    2. Maureen Were & Nancy N. Nafula, 2003. "An Assessment of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Economic Growth: The Case of Kenya," CESifo Working Paper Series 1034, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Anand, K. & Pandav, C. S. & Nath, L. M., 1999. "Impact of HIV/AIDS on the national economy of India," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 195-205, May.
    4. Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2008. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9787111235767, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Djemaï, Elodie, 2008. "Risk Taking of HIV-Infection and Income Uncertainty: Empirical Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 15605, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 09 Jan 2009.
    2. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7310 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7314 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Durevall, Dick & Lindskog, Annika, 2012. "Economic Inequality and HIV in Malawi," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 1435-1451.
    5. Martine AUDIBERT, 2008. "Endemic diseases and agricultural productivity: Challenges and policy response," Working Papers 200823, CERDI.
    6. Martine AUDIBERT, 2009. "Issues and Challenges of Measurement of Health:Implications for Economic Research," Working Papers 200922, CERDI.
    7. Karlsson, Martin & Nilsson, Therese & Pichler, Stefan, 2014. "The impact of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic on economic performance in Sweden," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 1-19.
    8. Fabrice Murtin & Federica Marzo, 2013. "Hiv/Aids And Poverty In South Africa: A Bayesian Estimation Of Selection Models With Correlated Fixed-Effects," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 81(1), pages 118-139, March.
    9. Bruno Arpino & Elisabetta De Cao & Franco Peracchi, 2011. "Using panel data to partially identify HIV prevalence When HIV status is not missing at random," Working Papers 048, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
    10. Wendy Janssens & Jacques Gaag & Tobias Rinke de Wit & Zlata Tanović, 2014. "Refusal Bias in the Estimation of HIV Prevalence," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(3), pages 1131-1157, June.
    11. Filippini, M. & Heimsch, F. & Masiero, G., 2014. "Antibiotic consumption and the role of dispensing physicians," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 242-251.
    12. Ibrahim Kasirye, 2016. "HIV/AIDS Sero-prevalence and Socio-economic Status: Evidence from Uganda," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(3), pages 304-318, September.
    13. Djemaï, Elodie, 2008. "Is the risk taking of HIV-infection influenced by income uncertainty? : Empirical Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 11731, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Elodie Djemai, 2017. "Roads and the Spread of AIDS in Africa," Working Papers DT/2017/16, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    15. Poulin, Michelle & Dovel, Kathryn & Watkins, Susan Cotts, 2016. "Men with Money and the “Vulnerable Women” Client Category in an AIDS Epidemic," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 16-30.
    16. de Walque, Damien, 2006. "Discordant couples : HIV infection among couples in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, and Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3956, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

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