IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/jrs/wpaper/201702.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Currency Matching and Carry Trade by Non-Financial Corporations

Author

Abstract

The paper investigates firms’ willingness to match the currency composition of their assets and liabilities and their incentives to deviate from perfect matching. Using detailed information at the loan contract level for the Hungarian non-financial corporate sector, the paper provides strong evidence to support the theory that currency matching plays a role in exporters’ debt currency choices. However, natural hedging is not the primary motivation for firms to choose foreign currency: it explains less than 5 per cent of the overall new corporate foreign currency loans contracted by exporters and less than 2 per cent of the aggregate new foreign currency bank loans. Besides hedging, our results suggest that both carry trade and diversification strategies are relevant factors in firms’ currency-of-denomination decisions.

Suggested Citation

  • Kátay, Gábor & Péter, Harasztosi, 2017. "Currency Matching and Carry Trade by Non-Financial Corporations," Working Papers 2017-02, Joint Research Centre, European Commission (Ispra site).
  • Handle: RePEc:jrs:wpaper:201702
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC106277/jrc106277_mismatch_wp.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Miguel FUENTES, 2009. "Dollarization Of Debt Contracts: Evidence From Chilean Firms," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 47(4), pages 458-487, December.
    2. David Revelt and Kenneth Train., 2000. "Customer-Specific Taste Parameters and Mixed Logit: Households' Choice of Electricity Supplier," Economics Working Papers E00-274, University of California at Berkeley.
    3. Giovannini, Alberto, 1988. "Exchange rates and traded goods prices," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 45-68, February.
    4. Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, March.
    5. Bacchetta, Philippe & van Wincoop, Eric, 2005. "A theory of the currency denomination of international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 295-319, December.
    6. Benavente, Jose Miguel & Johnson, Christian A. & Morande, Felipe G., 2003. "Debt composition and balance sheet effects of exchange rate depreciations: a firm-level analysis for Chile," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 397-416, December.
    7. Jorion, Philippe & Schwartz, Eduardo, 1986. "Integration vs. Segmentation in the Canadian Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(3), pages 603-614, July.
    8. Endrész, Marianna & Harasztosi, Péter, 2014. "Corporate foreign currency borrowing and investment: The case of Hungary," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 265-287.
    9. Brown, M. & Kirschenmann, K. & Ongena, S., 2009. "Foreign Currency Loans - Demand or Supply Driven?," Other publications TiSEM 75ee4df5-492e-4e1f-8dc4-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    10. Devereux, Michael B. & Engel, Charles & Storgaard, Peter E., 2004. "Endogenous exchange rate pass-through when nominal prices are set in advance," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 263-291, July.
    11. Bonomo, Marco & Martins, Betina & Pinto, Rodrigo, 2003. "Debt composition and exchange rate balance sheet effect in Brazil: a firm level analysis," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 368-396, December.
    12. Galindo, Arturo & Panizza, Ugo & Schiantarelli, Fabio, 2003. "Debt composition and balance sheet effects of currency depreciation: a summary of the micro evidence," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 330-339, December.
    13. Ongena, Steven & Schindele, Ibolya & Vonnák, Dzsamila, 2014. "In lands of foreign currency credit, bank lending channels run through? The effects of monetary policy at home and abroad on the currency denomination of the supply of credit," CFS Working Paper Series 474, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    14. Goldberg, Linda S. & Tille, Cédric, 2008. "Vehicle currency use in international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 177-192, December.
    15. Pekka T. Hietala, 1989. "Asset Pricing in Partially Segmented Markets: Evidence from the Finnish Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 697-718, July.
    16. Train,Kenneth E., 2009. "Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521766555.
    17. Romain Rancière & Aaron Tornall & Athanasio Vamvakidis, 2010. "Currency mismatch, systemic risk and growth in emerging Europe," PSE-Ecole d'économie de Paris (Postprint) halshs-00754418, HAL.
    18. Mr. Athanasios Vamvakidis & Mr. Romain Ranciere & Aaron Tornell, 2010. "A New Index of Currency Mismatch and Systemic Risk," IMF Working Papers 2010/263, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Marcio M. Janot & Marcio G. P. Garcia & Walter Novaes, 2008. "Balance Sheet Effects in Currency Crises: Evidence from Brazil," Textos para discussão 556, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
    20. Mora, Nada & Neaime, Simon & Aintablian, Sebouh, 2013. "Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in emerging markets: When domestic banks intermediate dollars," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1093-1107.
    21. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
    22. Romain Rancière & Aaron Tornell & Athanasio Vamvakidis, 2010. "Currency Mismatch and Systemic Risk in Emerging Europe," PSE - G-MOND WORKING PAPERS halshs-00967419, HAL.
    23. Gaston Gelos, R., 2003. "Foreign currency debt in emerging markets: firm-level evidence from Mexico," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 323-327, March.
    24. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, December.
    25. Donnenfeld, Shabtai & Zilcha, Itzhak, 1991. "Pricing of Exports and Exchange Rate Uncertainty," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1009-1022, November.
    26. Echeverry, Juan Carlos & Fergusson, Leopoldo & Steiner, Roberto & Aguilar, Camila, 2003. "'Dollar' debt in Colombian firms: are sinners punished during devaluations?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 417-449, December.
    27. Friberg, Richard, 1998. "In which currency should exporters set their prices?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 59-76, June.
    28. Matti Keloharju & Mervi Niskanen, 2001. "Why Do Firms Raise Foreign Currency Denominated Debt? Evidence from Finland," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 7(4), pages 481-496, December.
    29. Pratap, Sangeeta & Lobato, Ignacio & Somuano, Alejandro, 2003. "Debt composition and balance sheet effects of exchange rate volatility in Mexico: a firm level analysis," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 450-471, December.
    30. George Allayannis & Gregory W. Brown & Leora F. Klapper, 2003. "Capital Structure and Financial Risk: Evidence from Foreign Debt Use in East Asia," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2667-2710, December.
    31. Aghion, Philippe & Bacchetta, Philippe & Banerjee, Abhijit, 2001. "Currency crises and monetary policy in an economy with credit constraints," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1121-1150.
    32. Kevin Cowan & Erwin Hansen & Luis Oscar Herrera, 2005. "Currency Mismatches, Balance-Sheet Effects and Hedging in Chilean Non-Financial Corporations," Research Department Publications 4387, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    33. Ize, Alain & Yeyati, Eduardo Levy, 2003. "Financial dollarization," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 323-347, March.
    34. Pindyck, Robert S, 1991. "Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Investment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 29(3), pages 1110-1148, September.
    35. Friberg, Richard & Wilander, Fredrik, 2008. "The currency denomination of exports -- A questionnaire study," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 54-69, May.
    36. Galiani, Sebastian & Levy Yeyati, Eduardo & Schargrodsky, Ernesto, 2003. "Financial dollarization and debt deflation under a currency board," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 340-367, December.
    37. Chung, Wanyu, 2016. "Imported inputs and invoicing currency choice: Theory and evidence from UK transaction data," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 237-250.
    38. Christoph Rosenberg & Marcel Tirpák, 2009. "Determinants of Foreign Currency Borrowing in the New Member States of the EU," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 59(3), pages 216-228, August.
    39. Martin Brown & Steven Ongena & Pinar Yeşin, 2014. "Information Asymmetry and Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 56(1), pages 110-131, March.
    40. Carranza, Luis J. & Cayo, Juan M. & Galdon-Sanchez, Jose E., 2003. "Exchange rate volatility and economic performance in Peru: a firm level analysis," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 472-496, December.
    41. Dzsamila Vonnak, 2015. "Decomposing the Riskiness of Corporate Foreign Currency Lending: the Case of Hungary," CERS-IE WORKING PAPERS 1528, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies.
    42. Basso, Henrique S. & Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar & Jurgilas, Marius, 2011. "Financial dollarization: The role of foreign-owned banks and interest rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 794-806, April.
    43. Mariann Endrész & Gyõzõ Gyöngyösi & Péter Harasztosi, 2012. "Currency mismatch and the sub-prime crisis: firm-level stylised facts from Hungary," MNB Working Papers 2012/8, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
    44. Luca, Alina & Petrova, Iva, 2008. "What drives credit dollarization in transition economies?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 858-869, May.
    45. Thomas, Lee R, 1985. "Portfolio Theory and Currency Substitution," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(3), pages 347-357, August.
    46. Simi Kedia & Abon Mozumdar, 2003. "Foreign Currency Denominated Debt: An Empirical Examination," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76(4), pages 521-546, October.
    47. Levy, H & Markowtiz, H M, 1979. "Approximating Expected Utility by a Function of Mean and Variance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 308-317, June.
    48. Chamberlain, Gary, 1982. "Multivariate regression models for panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 5-46, January.
    49. Allayannis, George & Ofek, Eli, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure, hedging, and the use of foreign currency derivatives," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 273-296, April.
    50. Alan C Shapiro, 1984. "The Impact of Taxation on the Currency-of-Denomination Decision for Long-Term Foreign Borrowing and Lending," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 15(1), pages 15-25, March.
    51. Allayannis, George & Lel, Ugur & Miller, Darius P., 2012. "The use of foreign currency derivatives, corporate governance, and firm value around the world," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 65-79.
    52. Martinez, Lorenza & Werner, Alejandro, 2002. "The exchange rate regime and the currency composition of corporate debt: the Mexican experience," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 315-334, December.
    53. Brown, Martin & Ongena, Steven & Yesin, Pinar, 2011. "Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in the transition economies," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 285-302, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Harasztosi, Péter & Kátay, Gábor, 2020. "Currency matching by non-financial corporations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 113(C).
    2. Friederike Niepmann & Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr, 2017. "Foreign Currency Loans and Credit Risk: Evidence from U.S. Banks," CESifo Working Paper Series 6700, CESifo.
    3. Endrész, Marianna & Harasztosi, Péter, 2014. "Corporate foreign currency borrowing and investment: The case of Hungary," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 265-287.
    4. Bryan Hardy, 2018. "Foreign currency borrowing, balance sheet shocks and real outcomes," BIS Working Papers 758, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Marcelin, Isaac & Mathur, Ike, 2016. "Financial sector development and dollarization in emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 20-32.
    6. Martin Brown & Steven Ongena & Pinar Yeşin, 2014. "Information Asymmetry and Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 56(1), pages 110-131, March.
    7. Brown, Martin & Ongena, Steven & Yesin, Pinar, 2009. "Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 7540, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Sung C. Bae & Hyeon Sook Kim & Taek Ho Kwon, 2020. "Foreign currency borrowing surrounding the global financial crisis: Evidence from Korea," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(5-6), pages 786-817, May.
    9. Julián Caballero, 2020. "Corporate dollar debt and depreciations: all's well that ends well?," BIS Working Papers 879, Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Marina Tkalec & Miroslav Verbič, 2013. "A new look into the prevalence of balance sheet or competitiveness effect of exchange rate depreciation in a highly euroised economy," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(2), pages 225-240, June.
    11. Roberto Alvarez & Erwin Hansen, 2017. "Corporate Currency Risk and Hedging in Chile: Real and Financial Effects," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 97976, Inter-American Development Bank.
    12. Ashis Kumar Pradhan & Gourishankar S. Hiremath, 2020. "Why do Indian Firms Borrow in Foreign Currency?," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 14(2), pages 191-211, May.
    13. Martin Brown & Karolin Kirschenmann & Steven Ongena, 2014. "Bank Funding, Securitization, and Loan Terms: Evidence from Foreign Currency Lending," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(7), pages 1501-1534, October.
    14. Kevin Cowan & Erwin Hansen & Luis Oscar Herrera, 2005. "Currency Mismatches, Balance Sheet Effects and Hedging in Chilean non-Financial Corporations," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 346, Central Bank of Chile.
    15. Kevin Cowan & Erwin Hansen & Luis Oscar Herrera, 2005. "Descalces cambiarios, repercusiones en el balance general y protección contra el riesgo en empresas no financieras chilenas," Research Department Publications 4388, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    16. Andreas Röthig, 2009. "Microeconomic Risk Management and Macroeconomic Stability," Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Springer, number 978-3-642-01565-6, March.
    17. Fidrmuc, Jarko & Hake, Mariya & Stix, Helmut, 2013. "Households’ foreign currency borrowing in Central and Eastern Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1880-1897.
    18. Brown, M. & Kirschenmann, K. & Ongena, S., 2009. "Foreign Currency Loans - Demand or Supply Driven?," Other publications TiSEM 75ee4df5-492e-4e1f-8dc4-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    19. Beckmann, Elisabeth & Stix, Helmut, 2015. "Foreign currency borrowing and knowledge about exchange rate risk," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 1-16.
    20. Bryan Hardy & Felipe Saffie, 2019. "From carry trades to trade credit: financial intermediation by non-financial corporations," BIS Working Papers 773, Bank for International Settlements.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    borrowing decisions; currency mismatch; carry trade; financial crisis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jrs:wpaper:201702. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/eejrcit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Peter Benczur (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/eejrcit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.