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Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in emerging markets: When domestic banks intermediate dollars

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  • Mora, Nada
  • Neaime, Simon
  • Aintablian, Sebouh

Abstract

This paper investigates what induces small firms in an emerging market economy to borrow dollar credit from domestic banks. Our data are from a unique survey of firms in Lebanon. The findings complement studies of large firms with foreign currency loans from foreign lenders. Exporters, naturally hedged against currency risk, are more likely to incur dollar debt. Firms also partly hedge themselves by passing currency risk to customers and suppliers. Less opaque firms with easily verifiable collateral and higher net worth are more likely to access dollar credit. Firms reliant on formal financing (banks and supplier credit) are more likely to contract dollar debt than firms reliant on informal financing (family, friends and moneylenders). Bank relationships, however, do not increase the dollar debt likelihood. And finally, profitable firms are less likely to have dollar debt. Information frictions and limited collateral, therefore, constrain dollar credit even when it is intermediated domestically.

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  • Mora, Nada & Neaime, Simon & Aintablian, Sebouh, 2013. "Foreign currency borrowing by small firms in emerging markets: When domestic banks intermediate dollars," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 1093-1107.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:37:y:2013:i:3:p:1093-1107
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2012.11.012
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    Cited by:

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    2. Kátay, Gábor & Péter, Harasztosi, 2017. "Currency Matching and Carry Trade by Non-Financial Corporations," Working Papers 2017-02, Joint Research Centre, European Commission (Ispra site).
    3. Roberto Alvarez & Erwin Hansen, 2017. "Corporate Currency Risk and Hedging in Chile: Real and Financial Effects," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 97976, Inter-American Development Bank.
    4. Aiba, Daiju & Odajima, Ken & Khou, Vouthy, 2017. "Foreign Currency Borrowing and Risk-Hedging Behavior: Evidence from a Household Survey in Cambodia," Working Papers 143, JICA Research Institute.
    5. Neaime, Simon & Gaysset, Isabelle, 2018. "Financial inclusion and stability in MENA: Evidence from poverty and inequality," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 230-237.
    6. Neaime, Simon, 2016. "Financial crises and contagion vulnerability of MENA stock markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 14-35.
    7. Friederike Niepmann & Tim Schmidt-Eisenlohr, 2017. "Foreign Currency Loans and Credit Risk: Evidence from U.S. Banks," CESifo Working Paper Series 6700, CESifo.
    8. Sung C. Bae & Hyeon Sook Kim & Taek Ho Kwon, 2020. "Foreign currency borrowing surrounding the global financial crisis: Evidence from Korea," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(5-6), pages 786-817, May.
    9. Okuda, Hidenobu & Aiba, Daiju, 2018. "Capital structure decisions in a highly dollarized economy: Evidence from Cambodian firms," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1-18.
    10. Sanket Mohapatra & Jay Prakash Nagar, 2020. "Foreign currency borrowing and firm financing constraints in emerging markets: evidence from India," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 47(2), pages 121-144, August.
    11. Ashis Kumar Pradhan & Gourishankar S. Hiremath, 2020. "Why do Indian Firms Borrow in Foreign Currency?," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 14(2), pages 191-211, May.
    12. Hidenobu Okuda & Daiju Aiba, 2018. "Determinants of Firms’ Capital Structure Decisions in Highly Dollarized Economies: Evidence from Cambodia," Working Papers 160, JICA Research Institute.
    13. Neaime, Simon & Gaysset, Isabelle, 2017. "Sustainability of macroeconomic policies in selected MENA countries: Post financial and debt crises," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 129-140.
    14. Bitar, Joseph, 2021. "The unique dollarization case of Lebanon," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(2).
    15. Bitar, Joseph, 2021. "The unique dollarization case of Lebanon," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(2).
    16. Harasztosi, Péter & Kátay, Gábor, 2020. "Currency matching by non-financial corporations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 113(C).
    17. Gong, Di & Jiang, Tao & Wu, Weixing, 2018. "A foreign currency effect in the syndicated loan market of emerging economies," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 211-226.
    18. Marcelin, Isaac & Mathur, Ike, 2016. "Financial sector development and dollarization in emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 20-32.
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    20. Melgarejo Duran, Mauricio & Stephen, Sheryl-Ann, 2020. "Internationalization and the capital structure of firms in emerging markets: Evidence from Latin America before and after the financial crisis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Dollarization; Foreign currency borrowing; Dollar debt; Currency mismatch;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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