Bullying at School and Labour Market Outcomes
This study examines the long-term correlates of bullying in school with aspects of functioning in adult employment outcomes. Bullying is considered and evaluated as a proxy for unmeasured productivity, and a framework is provided that outlines why bullying might affect employment outcomes through differences in skills and traits. Using Bivariate and Heckit models we employ a variety of specifications and find several interesting patterns. The regression outcomes suggest that labour force participation, employment rate and hourly wages are negatively affected by bullying. In addition, men, homosexuals, immigrants, unmarried people, those having higher negative mental health symptoms, and those having lower human capital are more negatively affected by bullying in terms of labour force participation, employment probability, and hourly wages. Moreover, Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions suggest that labour force participation gaps, employment gaps and hourly wage gaps between minority and majority groups, especially for gay men and the disabled, can be explained by bullying incidents. It seems likely that having been a victim of bullying also has economic implications later in life due to withdrawal from the labour market and lower wages.
|Date of creation:||May 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: International Journal of Manpower, 2014, 35 (8): 1185-1211|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jacob Mincer, 1958. "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 281.
- Ada Ferrer-i-Carbonell & Paul Frijters, 2004. "How Important is Methodology for the estimates of the determinants of Happiness?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(497), pages 641-659, 07.
- Heckman, James J, 1979.
"Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
- Kenneth J. Arrow, 1998. "What Has Economics to Say about Racial Discrimination?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 91-100, Spring.
- Marjorie L. Baldwin & William G. Johnson, .
"Labor Market Discrimination Against Men with Disabilities in the Year of the ADA,"
9715, East Carolina University, Department of Economics.
- Marjorie L. Baldwin & William G. Johnson, 2000. "Labor Market Discrimination Against Men with Disabilities in the Year of the ADA," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 548-566, January.
- AlisonL. Booth & JanC. vanOurs, 2008.
"Job Satisfaction and Family Happiness: The Part-Time Work Puzzle,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(526), pages F77-F99, 02.
- Booth, Alison L & van Ours, Jan C, 2007. "Job Satisfaction and Family Happiness: The Part-time Work Puzzle," CEPR Discussion Papers 6471, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Booth, Alison L. & van Ours, Jan C., 2007. "Job satisfaction and family happiness: the part-time work puzzle," ISER Working Paper Series 2007-20, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Alison L. Booth & Jan C. van Ours, 2007. "Job Satisfaction and Family Happiness: The Part-time Work Puzzle," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1000, The University of Melbourne.
- Booth, Alison L. & van Ours, Jan C., 2007. "Job Satisfaction and Family Happiness: The Part-time Work Puzzle," IZA Discussion Papers 3020, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Anh T. Le & Paul W. Miller & Andrew C. Heath & Nick Martin, 2004.
"Early Childhood Behaviours, Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes: Estimates from a Sample of Twins,"
Economics Discussion / Working Papers
04-02, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
- Le, Anh T. & Miller, Paul W. & Heath, Andrew C. & Martin, Nick, 2005. "Early childhood behaviours, schooling and labour market outcomes: estimates from a sample of twins," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-17, February.
- Guido Heineck & Silke Anger, 2008.
"The Returns to Cognitive Abilities and Personality Traits in Germany,"
SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research
124, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
- Heineck, Guido & Anger, Silke, 2010. "The returns to cognitive abilities and personality traits in Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 535-546, June.
- Heineck, Guido & Anger, Silke, 2010. "The Returns to Cognitive Abilities and Personality Traits in Germany," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 535-546.
- Guido Heineck & Silke Anger, 2008. "The Returns to Cognitive Abilities and Personality Traits in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 836, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973.
"Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Boyce, Christopher J., 2010. "Understanding fixed effects in human well-being," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 1-16, February.
- Jeffrey Grogger, 1997. "Local Violence and Educational Attainment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(4), pages 659-682.
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- Sarah Brown & Karl Taylor, 2005. "Bullying, Education and Labour Market Outcomes: Evidence from the National Child Development Study," Working Papers 2005015, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2005.
- Braumoeller, Bear F., 2004. "Hypothesis Testing and Multiplicative Interaction Terms," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 58(04), pages 807-820, October.
- Becker, Gary S, 1993. "Nobel Lecture: The Economic Way of Looking at Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 385-409, June.
- Peter J. Dolton & Michael P. Kidd, 1994.
"Occupational Access And Wage Discrimination,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 56(4), pages 457-474, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7432. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.