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Roma Women in Athenian Firms: Do They Face Wage Bias?

  • Drydakis, Nick

    ()

    (Anglia Ruskin University)

Registered author(s):

    In the current study, we analyze the effect of having a Roma background on women's wages. By utilizing the Athens Area Study random sample (2007-08) drawn from 16 multiethnic municipalities in which Roma live, we estimate that 66.1% of the wage differential between Roma and non-Roma female workers cannot be explained by differences in observed characteristics. Prejudices against Roma women are discussed and appear to explain the wage gap found here. The occupational segregation of the Roma in low-paid jobs and employers' statistical motivations are also found to influence wages earned by Roma. This study concludes that there is a need for better implementations of existing laws, rules and regulations which would counter the discrimination of minority women in the labor market. In addition, a better means of assessing workers' skill may contribute to the reduction of wage discrimination, as well as, greater educational achievement would significantly boost the economic status of Roma women. In its use of a random Roma sample and multivariate analysis, this study is a methodological advancement over previous studies of Roma employment, and it could inspire new efforts to compare wages by Roma background.

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    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp5732.pdf
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    Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5732.

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    Length: 55 pages
    Date of creation: May 2011
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published in: Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2012, 35 (12), 2054-2074
    Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5732
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    1. Drydakis, Nick, 2009. "Sexual orientation discrimination in the labour market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 364-372, August.
    2. Nick Drydakis, 2007. "Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Labour Market," Working Papers 0832, University of Crete, Department of Economics, revised 00 2008.
    3. Judith Rich & Peter Riach, 1991. "Testing for racial discrimination in the labour market," Natural Field Experiments 00327, The Field Experiments Website.
    4. Minas Vlassis & Nick Drydakis, 2007. "Ethnic Discrimination in the Greek Labour Market: Occupational Access, Insurance Coverage, and Wage Offers," Working Papers 0715, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    5. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2006. "Evidence of Ethnic Discrimination in the Swedish Labor Market Using Experimental Data," IZA Discussion Papers 2281, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    8. O'Higgins, Niall, 2009. ""It's not that I'm a racist, it's that they are Roma": Roma Discrimination and Returns to Education in South Eastern Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 4208, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Peter A. Riach & Judith Rich, 1995. "An Investigation of Gender Discrimination in Labor Hiring," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 343-356, Summer.
    10. David Dickinson & Ronald Oaxaca, 2004. "Statistical Discrimination in Labor Markets: An Experimental Analysis," Working Papers 2004-04, Utah State University, Department of Economics.
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    12. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    15. Hipólito Simón & Esteban Sanromá & Raúl Ramos, 2008. "Labour segregation and immigrant and native-born wage distributions in Spain: an analysis using matched employer–employee data," Spanish Economic Review, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 135-168, June.
    16. Nick Drydakis, . "Womenâ??s Sexual Orientation and Labor Market Outcomes," Working Papers 0907, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    17. Petit, Pascale, 2007. "The effects of age and family constraints on gender hiring discrimination: A field experiment in the French financial sector," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 371-391, June.
    18. Swinton, David H, 1977. "A Labor Force Competition Theory of Discrimination in the Labor Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(1), pages 400-404, February.
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    20. Kenneth J. Arrow, 1998. "What Has Economics to Say about Racial Discrimination?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 91-100, Spring.
    21. Pinkston, Joshua C., 2003. "Screening discrimination and the determinants of wages," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(6), pages 643-658, December.
    22. Evangelia Papapetrou, 2007. "Education, labour market and wage differentials in Greece," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 28, pages 51-73, February.
    23. Nick Drydakis, . "Labour Discrimination as a Symptom of HIV: Experimental Evaluation: The Greek Case," Working Papers 0830, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    24. Nick Drydakis, . "Ethnic Differences in Housing Opportunities," Working Papers 0914, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    25. Nick Drydakis, 2010. "Health impairments and labour market outcomes," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 11(5), pages 457-469, October.
    26. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2003. "Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 9873, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    27. Nick Drydakis, 2010. "Ethnic Differences in Housing Opportunities in Athens," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 47(12), pages 2573-2596, November.
    28. Becker, Gary S, 1993. "Nobel Lecture: The Economic Way of Looking at Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 385-409, June.
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    31. Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1, May.
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