Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring
Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Wage regressions have documented lower incomes for gays but repeatedly showed higher incomes for lesbians. The results concerning lesbian women are striking but can be reconciled with the existence of labor market discrimination, however. Problems like sample selection and unobserved heterogeneity-in particular, lesbians' violation of stereotypical female gender roles- might be responsible for their higher earnings. To investigate whether discrimination against lesbians actually does exist, a labor market experiment is conducted. Job applications of candidates, who are equivalent in their human capital but differ in their sexual orientation, are sent out in response to job advertisements. Furthermore, to test whether increased masculinity affects labor market outcomes, the applicants differ in their perceived gender identity. While results show a strong negative effect for lesbian orientation, gender identity does not have a significant overall impact on hiring chances.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John M. Blandford, 2003. "The nexus of sexual orientation and gender in the determination of earnings," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(4), pages 622-642, July.
- Jerry M. Newman, 1978. "Discrimination in recruitment: An empirical analysis," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(1), pages 15-23, October.
- Susan Averett & Sanders Korenman, 1993.
"The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth,"
NBER Working Papers
4521, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Riach, Peter A & Rich, Judith, 1991.
"Testing for Racial Discrimination in the Labour Market,"
Cambridge Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 15(3), pages 239-56, September.
- Judith Rich & Peter Riach, 1991. "Testing for racial discrimination in the labour market," Natural Field Experiments 00327, The Field Experiments Website.
- Jeff E. Biddle & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 1995.
"Beauty, Productivity and Discrimination: Lawyers' Looks and Lucre,"
NBER Working Papers
5366, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Biddle, Jeff E & Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1998. "Beauty, Productivity, and Discrimination: Lawyers' Looks and Lucre," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 172-201, January.
- Dan Black & Gary Gates & Seth Sanders & Lowell Taylor, 2000.
"Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources,"
Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 139-154, May.
- Dan Black & Gary Gates & Seth Sanders & Lowell Taylor, 1999. "Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 12, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
- John M. Blandford, . "Evidence of the Role of Sexual Orientation in the Determination of Earnings Outcomes," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 2000-01, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Hamermesh, Daniel S & Biddle, Jeff E, 1994.
"Beauty and the Labor Market,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1174-94, December.
- Peter A. Riach & Judith Rich, 1995. "An Investigation of Gender Discrimination in Labor Hiring," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 343-356, Summer.
- M. V. Lee Badgett, 1995. "The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 726-739, July.
- Suzanne Heller Clain & Karen Leppel, 2001. "An investigation into sexual orientation discrimination as an explanation for wage differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 37-47.
- James J. Heckman, 1998. "Detecting Discrimination," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 101-116, Spring.
- Phelps, Edmund S, 1972. "The Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 659-61, September.
- Michael Firth, 1981. "Racial discrimination in the British labor market," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 34(2), pages 265-272, January.
- Jeffrey S. Gray, 1997. "The Fall in Men's Return to Marriage: Declining Productivity Effects or Changing Selection?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(3), pages 481-504.
- M. V. Lee Badgett, 1995. "The Wage Effects of Sexual Orientation Discrimination," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 726-739, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:labeco:v:10:y:2003:i:6:p:629-642. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.