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Do ENDAs End Discrimination for Behaviorally Gay Men?

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  • Michael Martell

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Abstract

Twenty-two states have implemented state Employment Nondiscrimination Acts (ENDAs) making sexual orientation discrimination illegal, and Congress has repeatedly considered a federal ENDA. However, we know very little about the impact of existing ENDAs and the likely impact of future ENDAs. I describe the implementation of ENDAs and highlight their shortcomings relative to federal employment nondiscrimination law. Despite their shortcomings, I show that state ENDAs decrease wage differentials by roughly 20 % for behaviorally gay men. ENDAs appear to reduce this wage differential by reducing the portion of wage differentials typically associated with discrimination. These results inform a contemporary policy debate over the necessity and impact of expanded protection from discrimination for gay men. (JEL J1, J3, J7) Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Martell, 2013. "Do ENDAs End Discrimination for Behaviorally Gay Men?," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 147-169, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jlabre:v:34:y:2013:i:2:p:147-169
    DOI: 10.1007/s12122-012-9154-9
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ian Burn, 2020. "The Relationship between Prejudice and Wage Penalties for Gay Men in the United States," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 73(3), pages 650-675, May.
    2. Clarke, Geoffrey & Sevak, Purvi, 2013. "The disappearing gay income penalty," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(3), pages 542-545.
    3. Mary Eschelbach Hansen & Michael E. Martell, 2014. "Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and the Lesbian Earnings Differential," Working Papers 2014-13, American University, Department of Economics.
    4. Jing Wang & Morley Gunderson & David Wicks, 2018. "The Earnings Effect of Sexual Orientation: British Evidence from Worker‐Firm Matched Data," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 56(4), pages 744-769, December.
    5. Delhommer, Scott M. & Hamermesh, Daniel S., 2020. "Same-Sex Couples and the Marital Surplus: The Importance of the Legal Environment," IZA Discussion Papers 13061, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Solazzo, Alexa & Brown, Tony N. & Gorman, Bridget K., 2018. "State-level climate, anti-discrimination law, and sexual minority health status: An ecological study," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 196(C), pages 158-165.
    7. Alyssa Schneebaum & Nina Schubert, 2017. "Marriage (In)equality: Does the Sexual Orientation Wage Gap Persist Across Marital Status?," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp254, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
    8. Jepsen, Christopher & Jepsen, Lisa, 2020. "Convergence Over Time or Not? U.S. Wages by Sexual Orientation, 2001-2018," IZA Discussion Papers 13495, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Ian Burn, 2018. "Not All Laws are Created Equal: Legal Differences in State Non-Discrimination Laws and the Impact of LGBT Employment Protections," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 462-497, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Sexual orientation discrimination; Employment nondiscrimination act; Wage differentials;

    JEL classification:

    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination

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