Sexual Orientation, Demography and Labor Relations
We use data from the 2008-09 Athens Area Study (AAS) to provide the first evidence on the relationship between sexual orientation and earnings in Greece. The AAS asks male adults a direct question about their sexual orientation: about 4.52% self-identify as homosexuals and 0.86% as bisexuals. Sexual orientation minorities are found to receive significantly lower monthly wages than heterosexual workers of the same age, education, health status and occupational characteristics. Moreover, there is statistically significant evidence that homosexual and bisexual men have higher unemployment rates than similarly situated heterosexuals. Of further importance is the finding that sexual orientation minorities who are also older, less educated, blue collar workers, and/or immigrants are statistically more vulnerable to wage discrimination and unemployment than comparable heterosexuals. Moreover, in the current research, in order to better understand the determinants of the wage gaps, we compare homosexual/bisexual men with both married and unmarried heterosexual men. By making these comparisons, we are able to disentangle the penalty associated with being unmarried from other human capital explanations of the wage gap. Given the legal actions in Greece that have the potential to affect sexual orientation minorities, it is important to understand the relationships between sexual orientation, demography and labor market.
|Date of creation:|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +30 831 77405
Fax: +30 831 77406
Web page: http://economics.soc.uoc.gr/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nathan Berg & Donald Lien, 2002. "Measuring The Effect Of Sexual Orientation On Income: Evidence Of Discrimination?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 20(4), pages 394-414, October.
- Nick Drydakis, 2007. "Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Labour Market," Working Papers 0832, University of Crete, Department of Economics, revised 00 2008.
- Plug, Erik & Berkhout, Peter, 2001.
"Effects of Sexual Preferences on Earnings in the Netherlands,"
IZA Discussion Papers
344, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Erik Plug & Peter Berkhout, 2004. "Effects of sexual preferences on earnings in the Netherlands," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 117-131, February.
- Farrell Bloch & Mark S. Kuskin, 1978. "Wage determination in the union and nonunion sectors," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(2), pages 183-192, January.
- Bruce Elmslie & Edinaldo Tebaldi, 2007. "Sexual Orientation and Labor Market Discrimination," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 436-453, July.
- Dan Black & Gary Gates & Seth Sanders & Lowell Taylor, 1999.
"Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence from Available Systematic Data Sources,"
Center for Policy Research Working Papers
12, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
- Dan Black & Gary Gates & Seth Sanders & Lowell Taylor, 2000. "Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources," Demography, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 139-154, May.
- Doris Weichselbaumer, 2003.
"Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring,"
Natural Field Experiments
00340, The Field Experiments Website.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973.
"Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- G. Reza Arabsheibani & Alan Marin & Jonathan Wadsworth, 2005.
"Gay Pay in the UK,"
London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 72(286), pages 333-347, 05.
- Arabsheibani, G. Reza & Alan Marin & Jonathan Wadsworth, 2002. "Gays' Pay in the UK," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 8, Royal Economic Society.
- Reza Arabsheibani & A Marin & Jonathan Wadsworth, 2006. "Gay Pay in the UK," CentrePiece - The Magazine for Economic Performance 201, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Dhaval Dave & Inas Rashad & Jasmina Spasojevic, 2006.
"The Effects of Retirement on Physical and Mental Health Outcomes,"
NBER Working Papers
12123, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dhaval Dave & R. Inas Rashad & Jasmina Spasojevic, 2008. "The Effects of Retirement on Physical and Mental Health Outcomes," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 497-523, October.
- Dan A. Black & Hoda R. Makar & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2003.
"The earnings effects of sexual orientation,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(3), pages 449-469, April.
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- John M. Blandford, 2003. "The nexus of sexual orientation and gender in the determination of earnings," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(4), pages 622-642, July.
- Christopher S. Carpenter, 2005. "Self-reported sexual orientation and earnings: Evidence from California," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(2), pages 258-273, January.
- Eng Seng Loh, 1996. "Productivity Differences and the Marriage Wage Premium for White Males," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(3), pages 566-589.
- Nick Drydakis, . "WomenÃ¢??s Sexual Orientation and Labor Market Outcomes," Working Papers 0907, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
- Swinton, David H, 1977. "A Labor Force Competition Theory of Discrimination in the Labor Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(1), pages 400-404, February.
- M. V. Lee Badgett, 1995. "The Wage Effects of Sexual Orientation Discrimination," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 726-739, July.
- Suzanne Heller Clain & Karen Leppel, 2001. "An investigation into sexual orientation discrimination as an explanation for wage differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 37-47.
- Carpenter, Christopher S., 2007. "Revisiting the income penalty for behaviorally gay men: Evidence from NHANES III," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 25-34, January.
- Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-75, June.
- M. V. Lee Badgett, 1995. "The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 726-739, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:crt:wpaper:0906. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kostis Pigounakis)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.