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Effects of Sexual Preferences on Earnings in the Netherlands

Author

Listed:
  • Plug, Erik

    (University of Amsterdam)

  • Berkhout, Peter

    (RIGO Research Institute)

Abstract

A small literature suggests that bisexual and homosexual workers earn less than their heterosexual fellow workers and that a discriminating labor market is partly to blame. In this paper we examine whether sexual preferences affect earnings in the beginning of working careers in the Netherlands. We find (i) that young and highly educated gay male workers earn about 3 percent less than heterosexual men; (ii) that similarly qualified lesbian workers earn about 4 percent more than their heterosexual female coworkers; (iii) that in terms of earnings, bisexual workers are more comparable to heterosexual workers; and (iv) that among homosexual workers the gender gap is not observed. From this we conclude that the Dutch labor market does not discriminate on the basis of both sexual orientation and gender in entry level jobs.

Suggested Citation

  • Plug, Erik & Berkhout, Peter, 2001. "Effects of Sexual Preferences on Earnings in the Netherlands," IZA Discussion Papers 344, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp344
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1, May.
    2. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162, Febrero.
    3. M. V. Lee Badgett, 1995. "The Wage Effects of Sexual Orientation Discrimination," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 726-739, July.
    4. Altonji, Joseph G. & Blank, Rebecca M., 1999. "Race and gender in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 48, pages 3143-3259, Elsevier.
    5. Marieka Klawitter, 1998. "Why Aren't More Economists Doing Research on Sexual Orientation?," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 55-59.
    6. Marjorie Baldwin & William G. Johnson, 1994. "Labor Market Discrimination against Men with Disabilities," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(1), pages 1-19.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    sexual preferences; discrimination; gender differences; Earnings;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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