The Gender Wage Gap as a Function of Educational Degree Choices in an Occupationally Segregated EU Country
This study investigates the extent to which differences in the subject of degree studied by male and female university graduates contributes to the gender pay gap, and the reasons underlying their distinct educational choices. The case of Greece is examined due to the fact that it is an EU country with historically large gender discrepancies in earnings and occupational segregation. Using micro-data from the Greek Labour Force Survey (LFS), the returns to academic disciplines are firstly estimated by gender. It is found that the subjects in which women are relatively over-represented (e.g. Education, Humanities) are also those with the lowest wage returns. Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions subsequently imply that gender differences in the type of degree studied can explain an additional 8.4% of the male-female pay gap. Risk-augmented earnings functions of the Hartog-type also indicate that women seek for less risky educations that consequently command lower wage premiums in the job market.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2009|
|Publication status:||published as 'Educational segregation and the gender wage gap in Greece' in: Journal of Economic Studies, 2012, 39 (5), 554-575|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Berkhout, Peter & Hartog, Joop & Webbink, Dinand, 2006.
"Compensation for Earnings Risk under Worker Heterogeneity,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2074, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Peter Berkhout & Joop Hartog & Dinand Webbink, 2010. "Compensation for Earnings Risk under Worker Heterogeneity," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 76(3), pages 762-790, January.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- Eric Eide, 1994. "College Major Choice And Changes In The Gender Wage Gap," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 12(2), pages 55-64, 04.
- Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance John & Todd, Petra E., 2003.
"Fifty Years of Mincer Earnings Regressions,"
IZA Discussion Papers
775, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kathy Cannings & Sophie Mahseredjian & Claude Montmarquette, 1997.
"How Do Young People Choose College Majors ?,"
CIRANO Working Papers
- Montmarquette, C. & Cannings, C. & Mahseredjian,S., 1997. "How do Young People Choose College Majors?," Cahiers de recherche 9719, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- MONTMARQUETTE, Claude & CANNINGS, Kathy & MAHSEREDJIAN, Sophie, 1997. "How do Young People Choose College Majors?," Cahiers de recherche 9719, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Polachek, Solomon William, 1981. "Occupational Self-Selection: A Human Capital Approach to Sex Differences in Occupational Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(1), pages 60-69, February.
- Thomas Mroz, "undated".
"The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center
84-8, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Mroz, Thomas A, 1987. "The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 765-799, July.
- Evangelia Papapetrou, 2006. "The unequal distribution of the public-private sector wage gap in Greece: evidence from quantile regression," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 205-210.
- Livanos, Ilias & Pouliakas, Konstantinos, 2009.
"Wage Returns to University Disciplines in Greece: Are Greek Higher Education Degrees Trojan Horses?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4442, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ilias Livanos & Konstantinos Pouliakas, 2011. "Wage returns to university disciplines in Greece: are Greek higher education degrees Trojan Horses?," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 411-445, December.
- Machin, Stephen & Puhani, Patrick A., 2003.
"Subject of degree and the gender wage differential: evidence from the UK and Germany,"
Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 393-400, June.
- Stephen Machin & Patrick A. Puhani, 2002. "Subject of Degree and the Gender Wage Differential - Evidence from the UK and Germany," University of St. Gallen Department of Economics working paper series 2002 2002-28, Department of Economics, University of St. Gallen.
- Machin, Stephen & Puhani, Patrick A., 2002. "Subject of Degree and the Gender Wage Differential: Evidence from the UK and Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 553, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Brown, Charles & Corcoran, Mary, 1997.
"Sex-Based Differences in School Content and the Male-Female Wage Gap,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages 431-465, July.
- Charles Brown & Mary Corcoran, 1996. "Sex-Based Differences in School Content and the Male/Female Wage Gap," NBER Working Papers 5580, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ilias Livanos, 2010. "The Wage-Local Unemployment Relationship in a Highly Regulated Labour Market: Greece," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(4), pages 389-400.
- Konstantinos Pouliakas & Ioannis Theodossiou, 2005. "Socio-Economic Differences in the Perceived Quality of High and Low-Paid Jobs in Europe," Labor and Demography 0506002, EconWPA.
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Theodore P. Lianos & D. Asteriou & G.M. Agiomirgianakis, 2004. "Foreign university graduates in the Greek labour market: Employment, salaries and overeducation," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(2), pages 151-164.
- Sloane, Peter J. & O'Leary, Nigel C., 2004.
"The Return to a University Education in Great Britain,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1199, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Nigel C. Oâ€™Leary & Peter J. Sloane, 2005. "The Return to a University Education in Great Britain," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 193(1), pages 75-89, July.
- Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1997. "Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in 1980s," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 1-42, January.
- Grazier, Suzanne & Sloane, Peter J., 2006.
"Accident Risk, Gender, Family Status and Occupational Choice in the UK,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2302, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Grazier, S. & Sloane, P.J., 2008. "Accident risk, gender, family status and occupational choice in the UK," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 938-957, October.
- Mark C. Berger, 1988. "Predicted Future Earnings and Choice of College Major," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 41(3), pages 418-429, April.
- Evangelia Papapetrou, 2007. "Education, labour market and wage differentials in Greece," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 28, pages 51-73, February.
- repec:uwp:jhriss:v:8:y:1973:i:4:p:436-455 is not listed on IDEAS
- Blaug, Mark, 1976. "The Empirical Status of Human Capital Theory: A Slightly Jaundiced Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 827-855, September.
- Theocharoula Magoula & George Psacharopoulos, 1999. "Schooling and monetary rewards in Greece: an over-education false alarm?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(12), pages 1589-1597.
- Boskin, Michael J, 1974. "A Conditional Logit Model of Occupational Choice," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 389-398, Part I, M.
- Linda Datcher Loury, 1997. "The Gender Earnings Gap among College-Educated Workers," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 50(4), pages 580-593, July.
- Barry Gerhart, 1990. "Gender Differences in Current and Starting Salaries: The Role of Performance, College Major, and Job Title," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(4), pages 418-433, July.
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1.
- Evangelia Papapetrou, 2004. "Gender Wage Differentials in Greece," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 23, pages 47-64, July.
- Yoram Ben-Porath, 1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life Cycle of Earnings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 352-352.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4636. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.