Are All Migrants Really Worse Off in Urban Labour Markets? New Empirical Evidence from China
The rapid and massive increase of rural-to-urban migration in China has drawn attention to the welfare of migrant workers, particularly to their working conditions and pay. This paper uses data from a random draw of the 2005 Chinese national census survey to investigate discrimination in urban labour markets against rural migrants, by comparing their earnings and the sector (formal vs. informal) they work in with those of urban residents and urban migrants. Exploiting differences in their status in the Chinese residential registration system (hukou) we find no earnings discrimination against rural migrants compared with urban residents, contrary to popular belief. In contrast, we find that urban migrants in fact gain a large wage premium by migrating. However, both rural and urban migrants are found to be discriminated out of the formal sector, working in informal jobs and lacking adequate social protection.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: IZA Journal of Labor and Development, 2014, 3:17.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jason Gagnon & Theodora Xenogiani & Chunbing Xing, 2012.
"Are All Migrants Really Worse Off in Urban Labour Markets? New Empirical Evidence from China,"
- Gagnon, Jason & Xenogiani, Theodora & Xing, Chunbing, 2011. "Are All Migrants Really Worse Off in Urban Labour Markets? New Empirical Evidence from China," IZA Discussion Papers 6268, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gagnon, Jason & Xenogiani, Theodora & Xing, Chunbing, 2009. "Are all migrants really worse off in urban labour markets: new empirical evidence from China," MPRA Paper 16109, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jason Gagnon & Theodora Xenogiani & Chunbing Xing, 2009. "Are all Migrants Really Worse off in Urban Labour Markets?: New empirical evidence from China," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 278, OECD Publishing.
- Margaret Maurer-Fazio & Ngan Dinh, 2002.
"Differential Rewards to, and Contributions of, Education in Urban China’s Segmented Labor Markets,"
William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series
508, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Margaret Maurer-Fazio & Ngan Dinh, 2004. "Differential rewards to, and contributions of, education in urban China's segmented labor markets," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 173-189, October.
- Meng, Xin & Zhang, Junsen, 2001. "The Two-Tier Labor Market in Urban China: Occupational Segregation and Wage Differentials between Urban Residents and Rural Migrants in Shanghai," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 485-504, September.
- Sylvie Démurger & Marc Gurgand & Li Shi & Yu Ximing, 2008.
"Migrants as second-class workers in urban China? A decomposition analysis,"
0808, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique (GATE), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université Lyon 2, Ecole Normale Supérieure.
- Démurger, Sylvie & Gurgand, Marc & Li, Shi & Yue, Ximing, 2009. "Migrants as second-class workers in urban China? A decomposition analysis," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 610-628, December.
- Sylvie Démurger & Marc Gurgand & Li Shi & Yue Ximing, 2008. "Migrants as second-class workers in urban China? A decomposition analysis," PSE Working Papers halshs-00586783, HAL.
- Sylvie Démurger & Marc Gurgand & Shi Li & Yue Ximing, 2008. "Migrants as second-class workers in urban China? A decomposition analysis," Post-Print halshs-00269119, HAL.
- Sylvie Démurger & Marc Gurgand & Shi Li & Ximing Yue, 2009. "Migrants as second-class workers in urban China? A decomposition analysis," Post-Print halshs-00451578, HAL.
- Zhang, Kevin Honglin & Song, Shunfeng, 2003. "Rural-urban migration and urbanization in China: Evidence from time-series and cross-section analyses," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 386-400.
- E. Paul Durrenberger, 2005. "Labour," Chapters, in: A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, chapter 8 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- WANG Tianhong & Atsushi MARUYAMA & Masao KIKUCHI, 2000. "Rural-Urban Migration And Labor Markets In China: A Case Study In A Northeastern Province," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 38(1), pages 80-104, 03.
- X. Meng & P.W. Miller, 1993.
"Occupational Segregation and Its Impact on Gender Wage Discrimination in China's Rural Industrial Sector,"
Economics Discussion / Working Papers
93-09, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
- Meng, Xin & Miller, Paul, 1995. "Occupational Segregation and Its Impact on Gender Wage Discrimination in China's Rural Industrial Sector," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 136-55, January.
- repec:pse:psecon:2008-20 is not listed on IDEAS
- John Whalley & Shunming Zhang, 2004. "Inequality Change in China and (Hukou) Labour Mobility Restrictions," NBER Working Papers 10683, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Knight, John & Li, Shi, 2005. "Wages, firm profitability and labor market segmentation in urban China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 205-228.
- Zhong Zhao, 2005. "Migration, Labor Market Flexibility, and Wage Determination in China: A Review," Labor and Demography 0507009, EconWPA.
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- Lin, Justin Y & Wang, Gewei & Zhao, Yaohui, 2004. "Regional Inequality and Labor Transfers in China," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(3), pages 587-603, April.
- Zheren WU, 2008. "Self-selection and Earnings of Migrants: Evidence from Rural China," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 08-25, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
- John Knight & Linda Yueh & Linda Y. Yueh, 2003.
"Job Mobility of Residents and Migrants in Urban China,"
Economics Series Working Papers
163, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Knight, John & Yueh, Linda, 2004. "Job mobility of residents and migrants in urban China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 637-660, December.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- John Knight & Linda Yueh, 2004. "Urban Insiders versus Rural Outsiders: Complementarity or Competition in China`s Urban Labour Market?," Economics Series Working Papers 217, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6268. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.